Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Goshen, Egypt

After recording the dramatic rendezvous between Joseph and his brothers, Jacob’s move to Egypt and Joseph’s brilliant economic plan, the very last verse in parashat Vayigash records the new “home away from home” of the Children of Israel, in Goshen. “Thus Israel settled in the land of Egypt, in the land of Goshen; they took holdings in it and they were fruitful and multiplied greatly” (Genesis 47:27).

Rabbi Moshe Feinstein asks why this verse was necessary, after all, the Torah has already described Goshen as the new Egyptian home of Jacob and his descendants. Since there are no extra words in the Torah, what does this verse teach us? Rabbi Feinstein argues that this verse teaches Jews of all future generations how to survive and thrive as Jews when surrounded by the blandishments of alien cultures.

First, Rabbi Feinstein teaches, Jews flourish in foreign cultures only when they remember their distinctiveness. They could survive in Egypt, so long as they remained true and close to Goshen, their specific enclave. To perpetuate Judaism, a Jew must live among others who share similar values, outlooks and practices.

Second, advanced Rabbi Feinstein, who lived most of his life on the Lower East Side of New York City, Goshen was indeed in Egypt, a land that was hostile to morality, ethics and spiritually. The 210-year phase of Jewish destiny that would take place in Goshen served as the crucible for the growth of Jacob’s family into a nation and people. This incredibly important spiritual and moral development took place in Egypt, a country with dramatically opposed ethics and virtues to those of Judaism. The challenges of Egypt were confronted by the teachings and beliefs taught in Goshen.

When Jewish parents bless their daughters, they do so by mentioning the names of the four Matriarchs. When they bless sons, however, they invoke Joseph’s children, Ephraim and Menashe. Why not the Patriarchs? A common answer given is that Ephraim and Menashe were born and bred outside of the Land of Israel, yet were able to successfully transmit the values of the patriarchs, in Goshen, Egypt.

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Celebrate Your Jewish Distinctiveness

While living in exile among different cultures, in order to perpetuate Judaism, Jews need to assure not to lose those special values that help Jews remain distinct.

Tuesday, December 11, 2018


Individual Jews first came to what is known today as the State of Indiana in the early years of the 19th century. Jacob Hays, who moved to Cahokia (now situated in Illinois) in 1822 was a tax collector and “Indian agent” for Fort Wayne, IN. Attorney Samuel Judah, a friend of famed Kentuckian Henry Clay, moved to Vincennes, IN, in 1818, ultimately serving in the state legislature from 1827-1840, Speaker of the 25th General Assembly and served as U.S. District Attorney from 1830-1833. The Gumberts family came to Evansville, IN, in 1837, followed by Isaac Heiman in 1838 and his brother in 1848. In 1842, Adam Gimbel moved his family to Vincennes. In the early 1850s, the Kuhn brothers, who established the investment firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Co., had moved to Lafayette, IN.

Indiana’s first Jewish congregation, Achdut V’Shalom, was opened in Fort Wayne in 1848. A year later, Indiana’s second synagogue opened in Lafayette, followed by a synagogue in Evansville in 1853. The first synagogue building was erected in 1865. By the turn of the 20th century, synagogues were situated in Indianapolis, Ligonier, Peru, Goshen, Terre Haute and Logansport.

Since that time, Jewish communities emerged in Indianapolis (estimated population 10,000); and in northwest Indiana cities of Gary, Hammon, Munster and Merrillville; South Bend; Fort Wayne and Evansville.

The Indiana Jewish Historical Society, housed at the Indiana History Center in Indianapolis, was created in 1972 as a repository for Indiana’s Jewish history. Jews have held office throughout Indiana serving as U.S. Attorneys, judges, mayors and state representatives.

Indiana became the second state in the United States to pass anti-BDS legislation on April 30, 2015. As of 2017, 17,345 Jews lived in the Hoosier state.

On December 11, 1816, Indiana became the 19th state of the Union.

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Learn the Jewish History of Indiana

Before you travel to or through Indiana, learn its rich Jewish history.

Monday, December 10, 2018

Beauty and the Greeks

What does Noah’s son Yaphet have to do with the story of Chanukah and the mitzvah of circumcision?

When the Syrian-Greeks sought to force the Hellenization on the Judeans, one of the first mitzvot that they outlawed was brit milah, circumcision. In fact, performing a brit milah on one’s child became a capital crime. The Syrian-Greeks found circumcision particularly offensive because of their own culture’s devotion to the beauty and perfection of the human body. The ancient Greeks are renowned for their sculptures and naked athletics. From the perspective of the Hellenistic culture, the male body represented perfection. It was therefore unconscionable that the Jews should alter it, or maim it, especially by Divine decree.

The Greeks are known in the Bible as “Y’vanim,” the people of Yavan. They are, according to the sages, the direct descendants of Yavan, the son of Yaphet, the son of Noah.

Noah had three sons: Yaphet, Ham and Shem. Very little is written about Yaphet other than the fact that, following Shem’s lead, Yaphet covered his father’s nakedness, which had been exposed by Ham. For this noble act, Yaphet is praised. (See Genesis 5).

There is, however, much one can learn about a Biblical personality through his/her name. The name Yaphet derives from the Hebrew root (y-ph-h), which is the base of the word Yafeh, beautiful. Thus, beauty, and the admiration of beauty, are part of Yaphet’s nature. Consequently, Noah blessed him: “May God grant beauty to Yaphet, and may it dwell in the tents of Shem” (Genesis 9:27).

Yaphet is associated with beauty and adoration of the human body, the two cultural traits that came to define Yavan-Greece. Perhaps, then, it is not so surprising that they abhorred the dedication of the Jews to the mitzvah of brit milah.

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Is Chanukah Really Eight Days?

Today is the eighth day of Chanukah, known as “Zot Chanukah,” a reference to the Torah portion that is read on the eighth day of Chanukah. Chanukah is set apart as an eight-day holiday. On Passover, the eighth day only takes place in the Diaspora (a repeat of the seventh day) and on Sukkot, Shmini Atzeret, in many ways functions as an independent festival from Sukkot’s seven days.

The author of the Code of Jewish Law, Rabbi Yosef Karo, poses a powerful question that academically challenges the very need for an eighth day. If, as the story goes, there was only enough oil to burn for one day, but it ultimately lasted eight days, the miracle was seven days, not eight. If this is the case, why is the festival observed for eight days, if the first day was not miraculous? Rabbi Karo offers a few answers of his own. Others have suggested well over a hundred answers.

There are a few Talmudical references to eight days, which Jewish Treats would like to highlight. The Mishnah (Menachot 85b) relates that the ritual oil used for lighting the Menorah in the Temple came from olives grown in Tekoa. Rabbi Nissim of Gerona (1320-1376, Spain), known by his acronym, the RaN, writes that it took four days to travel from Jerusalem to Tekoa and four days back, which is the basis of the Chanukah story, and the oil that arrived eight days after the first lighting.

A second story about an eight-day festival appears in the Talmud as well. The Talmud (Avodah Zarah 8a) relates when Adam saw the amount of daylight decreasing day after day, he wrongly assumed that his sin in the Garden of Eden was causing the decrease in light hours and would result in the eventual total darkening of the world. Adam observed an eight day fast, which happened to end on the winter solstice. He was relieved to observe the days getting longer afterwards, and therefore celebrated an eight-day festival to thank God. This festival which also began on the 25th of Kislev, became the pre-cursor to Chanukah, and was also celebrated on the next seven days.

So, thanks to a fantastic question offered by a renowned rabbi, we have learned two fantastic answers explaining why there are eight days to this wonderful festival, to which we bid farewell this evening.

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Make the Most of Chanukah

Although we concluded the eight lightings last night, we still have much Chanukah left. Despite the rapidly approaching conclusion, there is still ample time to apply the timeless values of Chanukah – thanksgiving for God’s miracles – that continue to benefit us to this very day.

Friday, December 7, 2018

“A Day that will Live in Infamy”

In one of the 20th centuries most memorable and impactful speeches, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt called the previous day, December 7, 1941, “A day that will live in infamy” due to the deadly surprise attack on US. Naval forces in Pearl Harbor, HI by the Japanese Air Force. The president’s speech to a joint session of Congress, led to a Congressional declaration of war against Japan, and eventually, its ally, Germany.

The surprise attack on a Sunday morning left 2,403 dead, and 1,282 wounded. The bombardment resulted in 188 destroyed aircraft and caused the sinking of 21 naval vessels. Of the 2,403 who lost their lives that day, 2,335 men were military personnel and 68 were civilians. The breakdown of the military casualties was as follows: 2008 naval servicemen, 109 marines, and 218 Army men. 1,177 of the casualties resulted from the sinking of the U.S.S. Arizona.

An article by Marla Cohen of the JCC Association highlights some valorous acts by Jewish seamen based at Pearl Harbor.

Ensign Nathan Asher, a 23-year-old junior officer, was at the helm of the Naval destroyer USS Blue when the attack occurred. Knowing the battleship USS Idaho had already been torpedoed, Asher ordered the crew to take the destroyer to the mouth of the harbor to protect the larger ships from Japanese submarines. Although he realized that it may have been a suicide mission, he felt, in his own words, “I didn’t have time to feel any fear.”

Ensign Stanley Caplan, 26, was on the destroyer, the Aylwin and saw the Japanese attack. He took the helm and steered the ship into the open sea and shot down three or four Japanese planes. Caplan received the Silver Star for his valor.

From the attack on Pearl Harbor in December, 1941 until Japan’s unconditional surrender in August, 1945, more than 550,000 Jews served in the U.S. armed forces. Sixty percent of all Jewish doctors under the age of 45, were in uniform during World War II. By the end of the war, 1,000 American Jewish servicemen had died in the service of their country and 40,000 sustained wounds. Two Jewish servicemen received the Congressional Medal of Honor, 157 received the Distinguished Service Medals and Crosses (including Navy Crosses) and 1,600 received the Silver Star.

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Thank Veterans and their Families for their Service

Thanking U.S. military veterans greatly benefits the Veteran. Acknowledging his or her willingness to sacrifice is always deeply appreciated. It is important to sensitize ourselves to the veterans’ willingness to sacrifice life and limb for the freedoms that we enjoy.

Thursday, December 6, 2018

Chanukah Yum

While Jewish holidays are known for their food (except Yom Kippur, of course), most of these foods are not known for being particularly healthy. Chanukah is no exception. Forget matzah or apples, those are healthy in comparison--pull out your deep fryer, because Chanukah is a celebration of oil.

Soufganiyot (that’s Hebrew for doughnut): Did you know that Homer Simpson’s favorite treat is a traditional Chanukah delight in Israel? Deep fried dough, most often filled with an injection of jelly, is how Israelis celebrate the tiny cruse of oil found by the Maccabees. This tradition probably developed from the custom among some Sephardi Jews to celebrate Chanukah with bimuelos, which are best defined as a type of fritter.

According to, the Greek Sephardi community eat loukoumades, a popular, deep-fried Greek pastry comparable to a doughnut, coated with honey and cinnamon. “Romaniotes, the Jewish community in Byzantine Greece, called this pastry ‘Zvingous/Zvingoi.’... Today both Greek Jewish communities, Romaniotes and Sephardi--who immigrated to Greece five centuries ago--make these Chanukah treats.”

Latkes: (That’s Yiddish for pancake, in Hebrew they are called levivot): Read any children’s Chanukah book today and you’ll find descriptions of pancakes made of grated potato sizzling away in oil. But, potatoes were only introduced into European society in the 1500s (they originated in South America).

Prior to the introduction of the potato to the latke, Ashkenazi Jews celebrated Chanukah with cheese latkes. Same basic idea, yummy food fried into pancakes. Dairy, however, has its own special connection to Chanukah. Dairy foods were eaten as a reminder of Judith (Yehudit), who, according to tradition, was a beautiful widow who beheaded an enemy general by plying him with cheese and wine until he fell asleep (read the complete story here).

Happy Chanukah. Now get out the griddle and enjoy!

This Treat is posted each year in honor of Chanukah.


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The Challenge of Fitting In

The weekly Torah reading of Miketz (Genesis 41:1-44:17), which almost always coincides with Chanukah, tells the story of the rise of Joseph the son of Jacob from slave to viceroy. And while Miketz contains no Jewish oppression, no battles, and no outright miracles, Joseph’s story could well be viewed as a stark contrast to the story of Chanukah.

The story of Joseph is an affirmation of how to remain true to one’s faith while still succeeding in a non-Jewish society. He spoke Egyptian without an accent and pretended not to understand Hebrew. He dressed in royal robes. The people called him Tzaphenath Pa'nayach. Joseph was so well disguised by his Egyptian identity that even his own brothers could not recognize him.

Throughout his stunning career, however, Joseph never forgot who he was. When Joseph finally revealed himself, he declared: “...for it was to preserve life that God sent me before you” (Genesis 45:5).

Joseph recognized that his ability to maintain his faith, while living as an Egyptian, was beyond most people. That is why, when his entire family came to settle in Egypt, he asked Pharaoh to allow them to settle in Goshen as shepherds, separated from the Egyptian people by land and profession.

Chanukah celebrates Jewish identity and the determination of the people to fight assimilation. When the Syrian-Greeks conquered the land of Israel, they presented their Hellenistic lifestyle as one that was exalted and universal. But as Jews took on the external affectations of the Greeks--their dress, their language, their names--they did not have Joseph’s strength to eschew the heathen practices that were integral to the Hellenistic lifestyle.

Assimilation into surrounding cultures with a corresponding loss of Jewish identity has always been a challenge for the Jewish people. Joseph met the challenge successfully, can we?

This Treat was last posted on December 14, 2012.

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Show Your Jewish Pride this Chanukah

Find ways to display how you prioritize your Jewishness this Chanukah.

Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Spin the Dreidel

I have a little dreidel
I made it out of clay
And when it’s dry and ready
Then, dreidel I shall play.

The Dreidel is a four sided top, with a single Hebrew letter on each of its sides. Before the game begins, all players are given an equal number of coins or candies. Each player makes an initial deposit of coins or candies to the middle of the circle and then takes a turn spinning the Dreidel. When it falls, depending on the Hebrew letter that is facing up, the following occurs:

Nun: Nothing happens, on to the next player.
Gimmel: The player wins the pot.
Hey: The player takes half the pot.
Shin: The player must put a coin/candy in to the pot.

Gambling?! On a Jewish holiday?

When the Syrian-Greeks ruled Judea (c. 167 BCE), they banned the study of Torah. The Jewish people defiantly continued to study and to teach their children. Under the threat of death, the children and their teachers met in secret, with a lookout to watch for soldiers. When the enemy approached, the books were quickly hidden and the Jews pretended to be gambling.

The letters on the Chanukah dreidel spell out Neis Gadol Hayah Sham, A Great Miracle Happened There (referring to Israel). In Israel, therefore, dreidels have a Pey instead of a Shin, representing the word Poh, which means Here, since the miracle actually occurred in the land of Israel.

So go ahead, gather a few friends, spend a few pennies and spin the dreidel without any guilt.

To learn more about Chanukah in general, please visit

This Treat is posted each year in honor of Chanukah.

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Giving Gifts

"One who is diligent in lighting Chanukah candles will have children who are scholars" (Talmud Shabbat 23b).

The desire for scholarly children was actually one of the motivations for the custom of giving Chanukah gelt (money). In modern times, money has been replaced by Chanukah presents. What is the connection between Chanukah lights, intelligent children and gelt?

Publicizing the miracle of Chanukah is so important that even a pauper, who has no money at all, is required to borrow money in order to buy oil for lighting. People therefore began to give a little money (gelt) to the poor so that they would not be embarrassed or forced to ask for assistance. Because the idea of "being diligent in lighting the Chanukah lights" is primary in both giving to the poor and meriting wise children, it became the custom to give children gelt as a reward for studying. Children who were diligent in their studies were rewarded with a shiny coin.

While gifts are an offshoot of the holiday, they represent an important element of Chanukah--chinuch, Jewish education.

The Maccabees fought so that their children and their children's children would be able to study Torah freely and be knowledgeable about their Jewish heritage. Jewish children are taught about Judaism not only for today, but for posterity as well, as it says in Proverbs 22:6: "Educate a young person in his/her own way, when he/she grows old he/she will not turn from it."

Over time, the simple practice of giving gelt (coins or presents) became a Chanukah custom - and not just for children. In truth, however, it is not surprising that gift giving has moved beyond just children. In our own day and age, we, the adults, also need encouragement to learn about who we are and what our Jewish heritage means.

This Treat is posted each year in honor of Chanukah.

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Give Spiritually Meaningful Presents

Think of giving Chanukah presents that represent the timeless messages of Chanukah.

Tuesday, December 4, 2018

These Lights We Kindle

While the mitzvah of lighting the menorah is an outward-focused mitzvah - the menorah is lit in a window or doorway - it is also an opportunity for personal reflection on the deeper meaning of the holiday. Recognizing this, a special paragraph was added to the menorah lighting ritual. Ha’nayrot Halalu, as it is called, is recited immediately after the Chanukah blessings:

These lights we kindle upon the miracles, the wonders, the salvations and on the battles which You performed for our ancestors in those days in this season, through Your holy priests. During all eight days of Chanukah, these lights are sacred. We are not permitted to make ordinary use of them, but to look at them, in order, to express thanks and praise to Your great name for Your miracles, Your wonders and Your salvations.

Ha’nayrot Halalu reminds us that there are many extraordinary events within the celebration of Chanukah. There are the miracles, such as the single flask of oil lasting eight days instead of one. There are wonders, such as the fact that there remained even one single flask of pure olive oil still sealed by the High Priest. And there are salvations, such as the incredible courage of the small Jewish army to go into battle while so severely out-manned and their ability to overthrow the soldiers of the mighty Syrian-Greek empire.

Additionally, Ha’nayrot Halalu contains a reminder that while there are no work restrictions on one’s actions on Chanukah (as there are on the Biblical festivals of Passover, Shavuot, Sukkot, Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur), one must not forget that the days of Chanukah are holy as well. Thus it is that one may not use the Chanukah candles for any purpose other than as a reminder of the many ways of God’s salvations.

This Treat is posted each year in honor of Chanukah.

Copyright © 2018 NJOP. All rights reserved.   

The Pope and the Jewish Prayer for Rain

Did you know that several centuries ago, a Pope impacted Jewish law?

Most Jewish events of note are based on the Jewish calendar. That’s why it’s surprising to learn that the date when Jews in the Diaspora begin requesting rain (for the Holy Land) in their prayers is based on the Gregorian calendar, not its Jewish counterpart.

The Mishnah in Ta’anit 10a claims that while we begin mentioning rain in our prayers on Shemini Atzeret, we do not actually begin requesting rain until the 7th of Cheshvan, 15 days later. The reason for the delay is to allow the Jewish pilgrims who came to Jerusalem for Sukkot to travel home without fearing for precipitation as a travel impediment. The travel time back to Babylon, crossing the Euphrates River, was about 15 days.

Regarding prayers for rain in the rest of the Diaspora, the Talmud then states that the prayers do not begin until 60 days from the “season” have elapsed. The reason for the delay in this case is not due to traveling, but because in those days, the Diaspora was on a lower altitude and did not need the rain as badly.

Since the seasons are based on the solar calendar, the date for the Diaspora is indeed based on the secular calendar. The autumnal equinox referenced above takes place on September 22 or 23rd. If this is the case, why is the prayer not scheduled for the end of November, sixty days later?

In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII manipulated the secular Julian calendar in three ways, two of which were related to the frequency of the leap year. His new “Gregorian” calendar skipped February 29th in the century year (1900, 2000, 2100…). Pope Gregory’s alteration that impacts our liturgy stems from his decision to have the Julian calendar skip 10 days. The Pope decreed that in 1582, October 4th should be followed by October 14th. For these reasons the 60 days fall out about 10 days later. In the 21st century, the Julian date of September 23 becomes October 7 in the Gregorian Calendar. Hence December 4th and 5th.

Rabbeinu Asher claims that the Talmudic date of 60 days past the autumnal equinox only has bearing in Babylonia, due to its abundant rainfall. Other locales should follow the 7 Cheshvan date identified with the Land of Israel as did Provence (Southern France) and he approved of this practice.

Tonight, during the evening service (Ma’ariv) Jews outside the land of Israel begin praying for rain by inserting the phrase v’ten tal umatar’(please cause dew and rain to fall) in to the prayers. This prayer is recited until the last prayer prior to Passover.

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Pray for Rain!

For those living outside of Israel, the custom is to begin this evening adding a prayer for rain in the Ma’ariv (evening) service. Rain is essential for the sustenance of humankind and also extinguishes deadly forest fires.

Monday, December 3, 2018

Pure Olive Oil

While a large number of Jews today light Chanukah candles, the more traditional custom is to light the Chanukah candles using olive oil. This is done in order to most accurately recreate the original Chanukah miracle.

When God instructed Moses to construct the Tabernacle in the wilderness (the vessels of which were eventually placed in the Temple in Jerusalem), He specifically stated: “And you will command the children of Israel, to bring to you pure olive oil, pressed for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually” (Exodus 27:20).

Pure olive oil, known in Hebrew as shemen zayit zach,* is the first drop of oil when the olive is first squeezed or pressed. The Mishna states that there is nothing better than the first oil of the first crop, and the sages of the Talmud described the process of how this oil was produced:

“The first crop is when the fully ripe olives are picked from the top of the tree; they are brought into the olive-press, are ground in a mill and put into baskets. The oil which oozes out is the first kind [of oil]. They are then pressed with the beam, and the oil which oozes out is the second kind” (Talmud Menachot 86a).

Olive oil, which burns slowly, cleanly and without an unpleasant odor, has many uses both in daily life and in Jewish rituals. Indeed, oil is one of the ingredients that was offered with the sacrifices in the Temple. However, only the menorah required the purest shemen zayit zach from the first pressing.

“If the candlestick, which does not need [the oil] for eating [but as fuel], requires pure olive oil, how much more do meal-offerings, which [need the oil] for eating, require pure olive oil! But the text states, pure olive oil beaten for the light, but not ‘pure olive oil beaten for meal-offerings’” (Menachot 56b)

*It is interesting to note that the words shemen zayit zach, when written in Hebrew, are composed of eight letters, one of the many interesting allusions to Chanukah that are hidden in the Torah  (as found on

This Treat is reposted in honor of Chanukah.
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A Ten-Light Chanukah Menorah?

In a summary of the Chanukah customs of Persian Jewry (Shlomo Tal edition, 1981, pg. 189-190), three options are offered regarding how to kindle the Chanukah lights. First, the common custom is listed, which is to kindle one light on the first night and add a candle each subsequent night. The second custom listed is to kindle three candles on the first night and add an additional candle each subsequent night. According to this tradition, one would end up lighting 11 candles on the final evening of Chanukah. The third custom suggested, called for lighting eight lights on the first night of Chanukah and adding eight additional lights on each subsequent night. According to this practice, 64 lights would be kindled on the last night, and a total of 288 lights would be kindled by one person over the entirety of Chanukah.

Rabbi Dr. Daniel Sperber, in his seminal work on Jewish customs, Minhagei Yisrael (vol. 1, chapter 23, pp. 167-168) claims that while the first listed custom of Persian Jewry is widespread throughout Jewry, the third custom is an anomaly, and Professor Sperber could not find any support for it.

Professor Sperber attempted to justify the second custom of lighting three lights the first night and add a light each subsequent night. The addition of the Shamash, the server candle which lights the other lights, serves a dual function. First, since one is not permitted to kindle from one light to another (Shabbat 22a), a separate wick is needed to illuminate the Chanukah lights. Second is the consensus of most halachic opinions that one must not use the light of the Chanukah candles for personal benefit. One should not, for example, read by the Chanukiah (Chanukah menorah), as that would be a prohibited use of the light. In order not to violate this precept, the sages added an additional light, the Shamash, so if one were to benefit from the lights of the candles, we assume it was from the additional light, not one of the lights fulfilling the mitzvah of kindling the Chanukah lights.

Professor Sperber postulates that lighting three candles the first night would accomplish the two goals of the Shamash – represented by two Shamash lights - and the one candle for Chanukah lighting. He notes that Chanukiyot have been discovered that have room for the eight Chanukah lights and two more spaces, i.e. ten in total. Many, if not most, of the Chanukiyot we use, actually have an extra space for the Shamash in addition to the places for the eight lights.

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Focus on the Shamash as you Light your Candles

We are not permitted to kindle one light from another, nor to benefit from the light of the Chanukah lights. The Shamash makes it possible to avoid both these prohibitions.

Sunday, December 2, 2018

Chanukah Blessings

The Jewish people have said this prayer daily for thousands of years. On the first night of Chanukah, one candle/wick in oil is placed on the far right of the menorah. Each succeeding night, one candle/light is added to the left of the previous night's candle(s)/light(s). The newest candle/light is always lit first.

Before lighting, the following blessings are recited:

Ba'ruch ah'tah Ah'do'nai, Eh'lo'hay'nu melech ha'o'lam, ah'sher kidishanu b'mitz'vo'tav v'tzee'vanu l'hahd'leek nayr shel Chanukah.

Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, who has made us holy through His commandments, and has commanded us to light the Chanukah light.

Ba'ruch ah'tah Ah'do'nai, Eh'lo'hay'nu melech ha'o'lam, sheh'asah neesim la'avotaynu, bayamim hahem bazman hazeh.

Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, who wrought miracles for our ancestors in those days at this season.

The third blessing is recited only on the first night one lights.

Ba'ruch ah'tah Ah'do'nai, Eh'lo'hay'nu melech ha'o'lam, sheh'heh'cheh'yanu v'kee'manu v'hee'gee'anu la'zman ha'zeh.

Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, who has kept us alive, sustained us, and brought us to this season.

This Treat is reposted in honor of Chanukah.

Copyright © 2018 NJOP. All rights reserved.  

Light the Menorah and Encourage Others as Well!

Be a part of NJOP’s Chanukah Across America campaign from home by sharing photos of previous Chanukah candle lightings on social media and encourage your friends to do the same. We encourage you to use the hashtag #TBChanukah (Throwback Chanukah) when posting. Click here to learn more.

Friday, November 30, 2018

The Story of Chanukah

Around the year 167 B.C.E., the Syrian-Greek rulers of Judea tried to force the Jews to assimilate into Hellenic culture. They summoned the Jews to the town squares where they were forced to worship idols or to sacrifice a pig before the idol.

When the Syrian-Greek soldiers demanded that the Jews of Modi'in sacrifice a swine to one of their gods, Mattitiyahu, a priest from the Hasmonean family, refused to allow this desecration to take place and slew the Jewish heretic who had volunteered to make the offering. Mattitiyahu, together with his sons, also attacked the Syrian-Greek soldiers. They won that battle, but they were forced to take refuge in the hills. Mattitiyahu's sons became known as the Maccabees.

Under the leadership of Judah the Maccabee, the Jews launched a guerilla war for freedom. In 165 B.C.E., the Maccabees finally succeeded in routing the vastly superior Syrian-Greek forces and retook the Temple, but by then the Syrian-Greeks had thoroughly desecrated the holy site. The Jews immediately set to work removing the alien idols, scrubbing the altar and performing the many tasks necessary to rededicate the Temple.

Unfortunately, there was no undefiled oil left with which to light the golden Menorah. The Jews searched for sealed jars of pure oil, and finally found only a single flask with its seal intact. They rejoiced and hurried to light the Menorah and rededicate the Temple.

But the one flask of oil was sufficient for only one day. It would take at least another week for fresh pure olive oil to be prepared and delivered. Not wanting to postpone performing the mitzvah, they decided to light the Menorah with what they had--and the miracle of Chanukah occurred. Despite the small quantity of oil, the Menorah remained lit for the entire eight days, indicating to the world that God's presence had returned to the Temple.

This treat is reposted annually in honor of Chanukah.

Copyright © 2018 NJOP. All rights reserved.  

Appreciate Religious Freedom

On Chanukah, Jews celebrate a victory over those who attempted to suppress religious freedom of worship because they refused to tolerate other people’s beliefs.

Thursday, November 29, 2018

The Torah’s Special Genetic Code

During Biblical times, our ancestors did not understand genetics, DNA codes, chromosomes and the transmission of physical attributes, as we understand them today. While the sages do note physical similarities that existed between kinsmen, they also viewed fate as somewhat genetic as well.

Parashat Vayeshev begins (Genesis 37:1-2) with the following words: “And Jacob lived in the land where his father was a stranger, in the land of Canaan. These are the generations of Jacob, Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brothers…” What does the phrase, “These are the generations of Jacob, Joseph…” mean? A Midrash (Bereshit Rabba 84:6) underscores the closeness between Jacob and Joseph and how their fates were intertwined. It further explains: “All that happened to this one (Jacob) also occurred to this one (Joseph).”

Both Jacob and Joseph were born to mothers who struggled with fertility; both of their mothers gave birth to two children; both had siblings who hated them and desired to kill them; both were shepherds; both were blessed with wealth; both were exiled outside the Land of Israel, and both married women raised outside the Land of Israel and had children outside the Land of Israel. Both were elevated due to dreams. Both descended to Egypt, died and were embalmed there, and both of their remains were transported back to be buried in the Land of Israel.

This Midrash is not merely teaching that the lives of Jacob and Joseph shared similar fates. This Midrash implies that Joseph’s values and piety actually mirrored that of his sainted father.

In the Torah, ideological kinship is vastly more important than genetic similarity. Our sages noted that Abraham and Isaac physically resembled each other; that Lot, Abraham’s nephew, looked like his uncle; and the Divine signs of matriarch Sarah re-appeared after her death when her son Isaac brought his bride Rivka into their home. The cloud over the home re-appeared, the challah which remained fresh all week was blessed and the candle burning all week was seen once again. Esau and Jacob, on the other hand, looked vastly different.

The sages were not at all interested in physical likenesses. The aforementioned resemblances highlight behavioral and attitudinal unity among different individuals. Genetic likeness means very little. The Jewish goal has always been for one’s children to resemble one’s actions and values, not necessarily their physicality. Righteous converts, who genetically may be distant from most of their Jewish brothers and sisters, are fully embraced as Jews, not because we value the genetic code, but rather the honor code of virtuous actions.

Joseph’s status as “righteous,” derives from his ability to withstand the seductive overtures of the wife of his master Potiphar. The Talmud (Sotah 36b) explains how he was able to avoid sin. “At that moment the image of his father came to him and appeared before him in the window.” It could be argued that the physical similarity the two men shared enabled Joseph to remain pure and holy.

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Judge by Actions

When evaluating or judging others, genetic and physical attributes pale in comparison to one’s character and virtuous actions.

Wednesday, November 28, 2018

“…You Border on the Adriatic”

For many Americans, knowledge of Albania may derive from a famous scene in the sitcom “Cheers,” where “Coach” helps “Sam” study geography via the use of songs. They did this by singing, “Albania, Albania, you border on the Adriatic,” to the tune of “When the Saints Come Marching in.”

Albania, which marks its Independence Day on November 28th, is a small Balkan country with a tiny Jewish population. While it was never a country with a large Jewish population, there have been Jews residing there for centuries. Some historians even believe that a small group of Jews came to the area in 70 C.E., and archeologists have found what they believe to have been a 5th century synagogue in Saranda. A more consistent record of Jewish settlement in Albania took place after the Spanish expulsion in 1492, when the area was under Ottoman control. Spanish and Portuguese Jews settled in many Albanian towns. In 1673, the infamous false Messiah Shabbetai Zvi, was exiled to the port city of Ulqin, Albania (now Montenegro) by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV, and died there three years later.

Perhaps the most interesting fact of Albanian Jewish history is the statistic that there were approximately 200 Jews in the country at the start of World War II and close to 2,000 at the war’s conclusion. In 1937, even as European anti-Semitism was increasing, the government of Albania officially recognized the Jewish community. Two years later, however, Albania became a puppet state under Italian control. Fascist laws limiting the freedom of Jews (and other minorities) were enacted, but the majority of Albanians did not enforce them. In fact, the Albanian embassy continued to issue visas to Jews long after other European countries had ceased to do so.

Hundreds of Jews managed to seek refuge in Albania, and the Albanian people did not distinguish between them and Jews native to the country. When the Germans took control of the country in 1943, they demanded that a list of Jews be provided to begin deportation. The local governments did not comply, and even provided Jews with forged documents.

The Albanian people, influenced by their custom of hospitality and “Besa” (words of honor) hid most of the Jews in their mountain villages. Some of these Jews went on to work for the resistance, while others were escorted to the Albanian ports and escaped. Yad Vashem has recognized 69 Albanians as Righteous Among the Nations.

Albania joined the Communist Bloc during the Cold War, which meant that teaching and practicing religion was illegal. After the 1991 fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, almost all of Albania’s Jews left. Today only about 50 Jews remain, mostly living in Tirana, Albania’s capital.

A version of this Treat was last published on November 28, 2017.

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Learn About and Laud Righteous Gentiles

Amid periods of tragedy, heroes emerge, many of whom are non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews. Learn about them and thank them and their descendants.

Tuesday, November 27, 2018

The Jewish Holiday A Week before Chanukah

The Mishnah (Rosh Hashana 1:1) declares four calendar dates as “Jewish new years.” On the first day of Tishrei, we celebrate Rosh Hashana as the annual day of judgment for all humanity because it serves as the anniversary of the creation of the first human. The first of Nissan is known as the New Year for kings and months. The New Year for animal tithes is calculated on the first of Elul. On this day, all animals become a year older. Finally, the 15th of Sh’vat, or in Hebrew, Tu B’shvat, is the New Year for Trees. The age of trees, which is important for certain agricultural laws, is calculated from this day. All trees become a year older on this date.

But among some Chassidim, most notably the disciples of Chabad, or Lubavitch, there is another New Year: the 19th of Kislev is known as the New Year of Chassidut, based on some historical events that took place on this day.

On this date, the founder of the Chassidic movement, Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov (1698-1760) is credited for revealing the “inner soul” or mystical components of Torah to the masses. His primary disciple, Rabbi Dov Ber, the “Maggid” (preacher) of Mezeritch, died on the 19th of Kislev. According to tradition, the Maggid told his disciple, Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi (1742-1812), the first Rebbe of the Lubavitch Chassidim, also known lovingly as the Alter Rebbe, (Yiddish for Old Rabbi), that “this day is our Yom Tov (festival).”

Rabbi Schneur Zalman was successfully disseminating Chassidic thought to the general public. However, he was arrested in 1798 for treason, and was accused of supporting the Ottoman Empire, an enemy of Russia at the time. Apparently, he was sending funds to impoverished Jews in the Holy Land, which was under Ottoman hegemony. He was imprisoned on an island off Saint Petersburg’s Neva River, and after 53 days, was released on the 19th of Kislev. Rabbi Schneur Zalman saw his exoneration as a Divine omen to continue spreading the secrets of Hassidic Torah to the masses.

Those who observe the 19th of Kislev will also point to other significant events that took place years later on this day: in 2003, Saddam Hussein was captured; in 2011, the Iraq war ended and in 2017, the United States formally recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, and announced the directive to move the U.S. embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

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Hail the Contributions of the Chassidic Movement

If you enjoy the spiritual, musical, or esoteric side of Judaism and Jewish observance, chances are you have been touched by the Chassidic movement. Acknowledge this contribution by studying Chassidic thought, listen to Chassidic music or read Chassidic stories.

Monday, November 26, 2018

The Story of Degania

Since many of the early settlers in pre-state Palestine identified with the socialist ideology, Kibbutzim (communal farms or settlements) were the desired living arrangement. The first kibbutz was Degania, established on December 1, 1909, corresponding to the 18th of Kislev. It is situated between the southern Sea of Galilee and the Jordan River, in what today is known as Northern Israel. They named their new settlement Degania after the five varieties of grain that would grow on the land.

Kibbutz Degania actually consists of two separate settlements: Degania Aleph and Degania Bet. The land for Degania Aleph, which is located just south of the Sea of Galilee, was purchased by Keren Kayemet Leyisra’el (the Jewish National Fund), and was settled by seven immigrants from Romny, Russia. This initial settlement, unfortunately did not succeed, until a second group of pioneers, ten men and two women, arrived from Russia and took over the land in October 1910.

Degania Aleph is often referred to as the "Mother of the Kvutzot" and was often a model for the establishment of other collective settlements in Israel. The second child born in Degania Aleph was none other than famed Israeli general Moshe Dayan (1915-1981) who was named for Moshe Barsky, a Degania resident killed in 1913 by Arab marauders. Noted Zionist activist and war hero Joseph Trumpeldor (1880-1920) had worked at Degania as well.

On May 20, 1948, only a few days after David Ben Gurion declared the establishment of the State of Israel, Degania Aleph came under attack by a Syrian tank unit that attempted to capture the nearby bridge over the Jordan River. The 70 residents of Degania Aleph fought valiantly, and succeeded to keep the Syrians out of their settlement. (One tank did cross the perimeter but was immobilized by a molotov cocktail.) The battle at Degania Bet was no less harrowing, but in the end the Syrians retreated.

Due to numerous factors, including the fall of the Communist Bloc, a strong Israeli economy built on capitalism, a waning of the secular Zionism ideology and a resilient Israeli military that no longer needs to rely on “minutemen” guarding kibbutzim, the Kibbutz movement today is unrecognizable compared to what it was during its heyday. Although as of the year 2000, 17,300 Israelis lived on 268 kibbutzim, the ideologies have changed with much privatization and many of the kibbutzim that had been anti-religious have even embraced religion.

A version of this Treat was last published on Friday, April, 12, 2013.

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Volunteer at a Kibbutz on your Next Trip to Israel

Whether you seek a secular kibbutz experience or a religious one, the experience will undoubtedly be memorable and worthwhile.

Friday, November 23, 2018

The Oldest Book of Diplomacy

In the beginning of Parashat Vayishlach, Jacob is confronted by the news that his estranged brother, Esau, is approaching with an army of 400 men under his command. Prior to this meeting, the last time Jacob and Esau saw each other, Esau was furious that Jacob had “stolen” the blessing of the first born from their blind father Isaac. Esau swore that he would one day kill his brother (Genesis 27:41). With Esau’s advent, Jacob famously approached the impending rendezvous with a three-pronged plan: appeasement, prayer and physical confrontation. First, Jacob dispatched gifts (Genesis 32:6) to his brother, then he offered overtures for peace, and finally, he prepared for war, should that option be necessary.

In Jewish tradition, Jacob’s approach toward his brother serves as a paradigm for strategic planning, and dealing with potentially belligerent sovereigns. The Midrash (Bereshit Rabbah 78:18) records that Rabbi Yannai would always review this passage about Jacob’s strategy vis a vis Esau prior to representing the Jewish community in Rome (which the rabbis identified as the offspring of Esau). Nachmanides suggested that Rabbi Yannai consulted this passage because it represents the paradigmatic Jewish guide for living in the exile.

Centuries later, in 1744, Empress Maria Theresa, Queen of Austria and the Archduchess of Hungary and Bohemia, issued a decree to expel the Jews from Prague. A Rabbi Zalman went to see an Austrian diplomat regarding canceling the expulsion, while the aforementioned official was visiting a Jewish woman romantically. The Austrian official expressed anger at Rabbi Zalman’s audacity to approach him during his “personal time,” and challenged the manner in which he confronted him. When Rabbi Zalman explained that he was following the lead of his ancestor Jacob, the official found the response fascinating and helped the Jews return to their homes.

The actions of the matriarchs and patriarchs serve as signposts for their progeny. Future Jewish leaders would be prudent to study and implement Jacob’s approach to prepare for his meeting with his brother. In a similar vein, the famed General Moshe Dayan, a student of Jewish history, understood that the only successful military campaigns to conquer Jerusalem came from the north. As such, when he approved the plans to attempt to regain Jerusalem during the Six Day War, he made certain the Israeli paratroopers came via the North, which they did, via the Lions Gate.

Every episode in the Torah is pregnant with meaning.

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Study Torah for Guidance in Today’s World

We would be wise to study Biblical stories and marvel at their relevance, even today.

Thursday, November 22, 2018

The Thanksgiving Synagogue Service

While Thanksgiving is most certainly an American festival of gratitude, its founders prominently articulated its religious underpinnings, which ultimately find their source in Judaism. Two well-known Manhattan synagogues actually created and held Thanksgiving ceremonies which took place on Thanksgiving morning, adding a decidedly religious tone to a day that, today, is usually associated with hefty eating, football and shopping.

On Thursday, November 21, 1940, Congregation Kehilath Jeshurun featured a “Thanksgiving Service” at 11:00am in its sanctuary. The service weaved a tapestry of liturgical music, American patriotism and speeches. After the choir and cantor led Ma Tovu, the congregation rose as the colors were presented to the synagogue’s president, who then read President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Thanksgiving Proclamation. Charles Poletti, Lieutenant Governor of the State of the New York delivered a Thanksgiving Address to the assembled and the synagogue’s rabbi, Joseph H. Lookstein, offered a “Thanksgiving Prayer.” Rabbi Lookstein’s prayer offered gratitude to God for the Creation, for man’s dignity and wisdom and for all of humankind to thrive. The final paragraph addressed the host nation: “We pray sincerely for America and the ideals of democracy and freedom that are here enshrined. May she be strong to withstand all the currents that assail her and all the forces of evil that would invade her sacred precincts. A tower of light to her own citizenry, may she cast a steady beam and light up all the dark areas of the world and show to a perplexed and straying humanity the path of freedom, of life and of peace.”

Five years later, a “Service for Thanksgiving Day” took place at Congregation Shearith Israel. This service included a standard prayer for the U.S. government, and included a greater sampling of psalms, including verses from the psalms known as “Hallel” and the “Psalm of Praise” (Psalm 100).

Whether one’s Thanksgiving includes Jewish liturgy or not, showing gratitude for our bounty is a message all can appreciate. Judaism, etymologically related to Biblical Judah, denotes gratitude, and has taught thanksgiving to humanity for millennia.

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Connect Thanksgiving to Judaism

However one celebrates Thanksgiving, take note of the parallel to Judaism’s focus on gratitude.

Wednesday, November 21, 2018


Ever feel nervous just before the start of a trip? Ever have sleepless nights before boarding an airplane? Perhaps these hesitations connect back to a time when travel, whether by road or sea, was particularly perilous. Today, traveling is so common that we often think nothing of it, even if there are modern dangers.

Because a journey is not an everyday event, the sages created tefillat haderech, the wayfarer’s prayer.
In English, the prayer is:

May it be Your will, Lord, our God and the God of our ancestors, that You lead us to peace, guide our footsteps to peace, and enable us to reach our desired destination for life, happiness, and peace. May You rescue us from the hand of every foe, ambush, robbers, or vicious animals along the way, and from all manner of punishments that rage on the earth. May You send blessing in everything we do, and grant us grace, kindness, and mercy in Your eyes and in the eyes of all who see us. May You hear the sound of our supplications because You are God Who hears prayer and supplications. Blessed are You, God, Who hears prayer. 

But what is the definition of a journey? Driving from New York to Boston takes approximately 4 hours. Flying between the same two cities takes less than an hour and a half (from take-off to landing, not counting check-in, security and waiting around time!). As there are different factors involved in different means of travel, please consult with your rabbi as to when tefillat haderech needs to be recited.

So next time you are off to visit grandma or heading to your dream vacation, take a moment for a little extra traveler’s insurance.

For tefillat haderech in Hebrew and transliteration, please click on one of the two versions of the prayer, one from Chabad and one from

This Treat was originally posted on July 17, 2012.

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Travel Safely

A component of safe travels is to pray for a successful journey. Be sure to take all traveling precautions, and remember to pray as well.

Tuesday, November 20, 2018

The Longest 250 Miles: Sadat’s Bold Flight

Imagine America’s foremost enemy addressing a joint session of Congress? You can’t; it’s almost impossible to envision such a scenario actually taking place. But such a miraculous event, took place on November 20, 1977, in the Israeli Knesset. General Anwar Sadat, the leader of Egypt, Israel’s foremost enemy, brought his message of peace to the Israeli people. It was a moment in time when people needed to pinch themselves to assure that what they were seeing was real and not imaginary. Menachem Begin’s victory in the 1977 Parliamentary election, caused a huge shift in Israeli politics, as it would be the first time a right-leaning government was voted into power. Many feared Begin and his Likud party’s conservative positions would lead to war, not peace. But within months of the election, the impossible actually occurred, just four years after the Yom Kippur war. The brief 250-mile flight from Cairo to Tel Aviv represented light-years of progress, and a huge risk on both the parts of Begin and Sadat.

Prior to his speech, Sadat prayed at the Al-Aqsa mosque on Jerusalem’s Temple Mount, visited the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and toured Israel’s Holocaust Museum, Yad Vashem.

Speaking in the Israeli Knesset in his native Arabic, Sadat declared to Israel’s lawmakers and the world: “I come to you today on solid ground, to shape a new life, to establish peace.”

He noted how his decision to reach out to Israel was controversial and stated that if the Israelis actually invited him to Jerusalem, he would immediately accept, which he did. “I have declared that I will go to the end of the world; I will go to Israel, for I want to put before the People of Israel all of the facts.” Prime Minister Begin responded eloquently with a speech of his own welcoming President Sadat and his heroic overtures for peace.

Sadat’s Jerusalem visit led to the 1979 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty, which was brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter and signed by Israel and Egypt at the Maryland presidential retreat, “Camp David.” Both Sadat and Begin were awarded the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize. Tragically, in 1981 Sadat was assassinated by terrorists who violently opposed his overtures for peace to Israel. Menachem Begin was among the world leaders attending Sadat’s funeral, on Saturday, October 10, 1981, and led the Israeli delegation who walked from the hotel to the ceremony due to the sanctity of Shabbat. President Reagan, led the U.S. delegation, which included Presidents Nixon, Carter and Ford.

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Make Efforts for Peace

There are few greater goals in life than peace. Make the efforts to end hatred and promote harmony.

Monday, November 19, 2018

Israel’s Beloved Ofra

If one mentions the name Ofra Haza to Israelis of a certain age, you will likely see a smile followed by a look of sadness. Ofra was the darling of Israel, with a voice from the heavens, whose untimely death shook Israel.

Batsheva Ofra Haza was born on November 19th, 1957. Her parents, Yefet and Shoshana Haza, immigrated from Yemen and raised Ofra, and her eight older siblings in Tel Aviv’s poor Hatikvah neighborhood. Bezalel Aloni, the manager of a local theater troupe, recognized Ofra’s immense talent and aside from working his theater productions around her schedule so he could feature her, became her manager. After finishing her military service in 1979, Ofra launched her solo career.

Ofra’s first album yielded many hits that captured the Israeli market, including a song that accompanied a movie role for her in the 1979 film “Schlager.” By 1982, she had already recorded 3 musical albums that were all huge hits. In 1983 her hit song “Chai” came in a close second at the international Eurovision contest, was voted best Israeli song of the year, and propelled the “Chai” album to platinum. She was voted “Female Vocalist of the Year” in Israel from 1980-1983. Her 1984 album, “Shirei Teiman” (songs of Yemen), a recording of songs of Haza’s childhood, helped establish Haza’s international popularity. Haza collaborated with Thomas Dolby (“She Blinded Me with Science,” 1982), Paula Abdul and Sarah Brightman.

Ofra Haza was cast as the voice of “Yocheved,” Moses’ mother in Steven Spielberg’s “Prince of Egypt.” In the movie, she sang “Deliver Us” which was recorded in 17 languages. When Hans Zimmer introduced Haza to the animation artists drawing Yocheved, they were so struck by Haza’s beauty, that they drew the character to look like her.

In 1997, Haza married Israeli businessman Doron Ashkenazi right before her 40th birthday. She died tragically on February 23, 2000 and Israel was thrust into mourning. Prime Minister Ehud Barak stated, “Ofra emerged from the Hatikvah slums to reach the peak of Israeli culture. She has left a mark on us all.” She is buried in the Artist section of Yarkon Cemetery in Petch Tikvah. On the seventh anniversary of her death, Tel Aviv renamed part of a park on the street on which she grew up as “Gan Ofra” (Ofra Park).

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Support Israeli Artists

Support the work of Jewish and Israeli artists.

Friday, November 16, 2018

Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman was born on July 31, 1912 to Sara Ethel (Landau) and Jeno Saul Friedman, Carpathian Jewish immigrants living in Brooklyn, NY. As a child, his family relocated to Rahway, NJ and he was awarded a scholarship to Rutgers University, from where he graduated in 1932. Friedman planned to become an actuary, but was convinced that economics could help end the depression. He decided to pursue the study of economics at the University of Chicago, where he received an M.A. in 1933.

Friedman married Rose (nee Director) Friedman (1910-2009), a free market economist with whom he frequently collaborated academically. Rose was born Staryi Chortoryisk in present-day Ukraine to a prominent Jewish family, who immigrated to Portland, ME, in 1914.

The Friedmans moved to Washington, D.C. in 1935, hoping President F.D. Roosevelt’s “New Deal” would solve some of the economic challenges facing the nation. While Friedman supported the job-creation initiatives, he frowned upon the price and wage fixing proposals. During World War II, Friedman contributed to the wartime tax policy, aiding the creation of the system of tax withholdings, in order to infuse the government with money that would fuel the war effort. Later, he admitted that while the cash was needed at the time, he wished there were a way to abolish the system of withholding.

In 1943, Friedman began work at Columbia University at its Division of War Research, and completed his doctorate there in 1946. Armed with his new Ph.D., Friedman accepted a faculty position teaching economic theory at the University of Chicago, where he held court for the next 30 years. During the 1954-1955 academic year, Friedman traveled to Cambridge, England, serving as a Fulbright Visiting Fellow.

Friedman published “Capitalism and Freedom” in 1962, which drew attention to him outside of the academic world of economics. He concluded that a government should not intervene in its economy unless absolutely necessary and that free markets are the best way to grow an economy.

Friedman received the 1976 Nobel Prize in Economics for his work on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan awarded him the National Medal of Science and the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Friedman and his wife retired to San Francisco in 1977, where he lived out the rest of his days. He died on November 16, 2006. He was survived by his wife and two children.

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Note the Jewish Nobel Laureates

The number of Jewish Nobel Laureates far outpaces Jewish representation in the general population. Jews have greatly impacted on society for the better.

Thursday, November 15, 2018

Can There Be Too Much Joy?

The Talmud (Mo’ed Katan 8b) rules that we may not get married during the intermediate days of a festival. The Talmud offers two reasons for the prohibition. First, because we do not mix one joyous celebration with another joyous celebration, in Hebrew ein m’arvin simcha b’simcha (conducting marriage ceremonies on the Shabbat and Biblical Holidays is also proscribed). Second, the sages did not approve of an individual rejoicing in his marriage, which would cause him not to fully celebrate the festival.

The Talmud identifies the source for the injunction of intermingling celebrations from a verse in Kings I (8:65) which describes the two-week celebration marking the inauguration of Solomon’s Temple, which ended in time for the Sukkot festival. The Talmud observes that since the two events did not overlap, it seems to prove that the two events could not take place simultaneously.

The Tosafot, citing the Jerusalem Talmud (Moed Katan 1:7), cite another source, from our parasha, Parashat Vayeitzei. After Laban deceived Jacob by delivering Leah, not Rachel, to the bridal chamber, he agreed to allow Jacob to marry Rachel, only after a week had elapsed (Genesis 29:27). Why, asks the Talmud, did Laban not simply make another wedding immediately after Jacob discovered the subterfuge? The Talmud answers because Jacob needed to celebrate his marriage with Leah for a full week, prior to entering into the joy of marriage with Rachel. The two celebrations could not be intermingled.

The Shulchan Aruch, Code of Jewish Law (Orach Chaim 546) rules that marriages do not take place on Biblical holidays (people may, and do, get married on the rabbinic holidays of Chanukah and Purim).

Rabbi Chaim Chizkiya Medini (1834-1904) in his encyclopedic work on Jewish law, S’dei Chemed, asks if a synagogue dedication can take place on a festival, or would it violate the principle of mingling joy? He ruled leniently, reasoning that the two types of joy both need to be physical joy. However, the dedication of a synagogue is more spiritual than physical. He also saw the joy of the synagogue dedication as an extension of the joy of the festival. It seems that the celebration of the dedication of a synagogue pales in comparison to the dedication of Solomon’s first Temple in Jerusalem, which, according to the Talmud, is the source for the prohibition.

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Celebrate Fully!

When participating in a simcha (a joyous occasion), do so with unbridled joy and with full enthusiasm.

Wednesday, November 14, 2018

Zionism Is Not Racism!

After acquiring control over the territory known as Palestine in the aftermath of its victory in World War I, the British soon realized that there were no simple solutions when two peoples claim the same land.

Despite the Balfour Declaration of 1917, the British government wavered back and forth on its support of a Jewish state in Palestine, eventually asking the nascent United Nations to suggest a course of action. On November 29, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 181 calling for the creation of independent Jewish and Arab states in the area known as Palestine, which triggered jubilation among Palestine’s Jews.

The Arab nations opposed Israel’s existence from the moment Resolution 181 passed, engaging in regional wars in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, all of which Israel survived. The Arab bloc, along with its benefactor the Soviet Union, tried to harm Israel diplomatically, by equating Zionism, the Jewish yearning for a return to its ancestral homeland, with racism. On November 10, 1975, corresponding to 6 Kislev, General Assembly Resolution 3379 concluded that Zionism is “a form of racism and racial discrimination” passed 72 to 25, with 32 abstentions.

Israeli Ambassador to the United Nations (and future President of Israel) Chaim Herzog delivered a blistering rebuttal from the rostrum of the United Nations General Assembly by noting that Arabs serve as ministers in the Israeli government, are members of Israel’s army and its security services, and that Arabic is an official language of Israel. Herzog called the resolution “anti-Semitic.” He concluded his speech, “For us, the Jewish people, this resolution based on hatred, falsehood and arrogance, is devoid of any moral or legal value. For us, the Jewish people, this is no more than a piece of paper and we shall treat it as such.” Herzog then dramatically ripped up a draft of the resolution.

U.S. ambassador to the UN, and future New York senator, Daniel P. Moynihan, in condemning the resolution, declared that the United States will not accept or “acquiesce this infamous act,” and codifying anti-Semitism as international law.

Sixteen years later, on December 16, 1991, as a pre-condition to Israeli participation in the 1991 Madrid Peace Conference, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/86 revoked Resolution 3379, by a vote of 111-25 with 13 abstentions.

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Fight Anti-Semitism

Tragically, there is still much anti-Semitism in the world. It is our duty to make certain that anti-Semitism and other forms of baseless bigotry are defeated.

Tuesday, November 13, 2018

First On The Court

Born in 1856, in Louisville, Kentucky, Louis Dembitz Brandeis was the child of European immigrants who maintained a minimal Jewish identity. However, his maternal uncle, Lewis Dembitz, lived a more Jewishly involved life-style and inspired Brandeis’ subsequent Zionist activities.

Brandeis graduated from Harvard Law School at 20 with the highest (at that time) grade point average in the history of Harvard. After a brief stint in Louisville, he set up a practice in Boston. Achieving financial success, Brandeis began representing causes he believed in, purely for the love of the law. Professionally, Brandeis was involved in breaking monopolies, creating the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Trade Commission. He is also noted for his articulation of the legal “right to privacy” concept.

Brandeis was nominated by President Woodrow Wilson to become a Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court in 1916. On June 1st, he was confirmed to the Supreme Court by a Senate vote of 47 to 22. He was the first Jewish Justice on the Supreme Court. While his Jewish identity was certainly the cause for some opposition, it was his reputation as a crusader for social justice that predominately energized his opponents.

Although Brandeis had a distant relationship with his Jewish heritage, he was an ardent Zionist. During World War I, he chaired the Provisional Executive Committee for Zionist Affairs (predecessor to the Zionist Organization of America, ZOA). In 1919, however, he left ZOA after an administrative disagreement with Chaim Weizmann (later President of Israel). He remained active on a personal level, including using his political influence to benefit the Zionist movement.

Sadly, Brandeis never witnessed the creation of the independent State of Israel. He died of a heart attack in 1941, two years after resigning from the Supreme Court. Brandeis was survived by his wife Alice nee Goldmark, and two daughters, Susan Gilbert and Elizabeth Raushenbush.

Justice Louis Brandeis was born on November 13, 1856.

This Treat was originally posted on June 28, 2010.

If you enjoyed this mini-biography, check out Jewish Treats: 99 Fascinating Jewish Personalities.

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