Monday, March 18, 2019

Her Other Name

Do you have a Hebrew name that’s different than your legal name?

The custom of giving children both secular and Hebrew names is not a modern tradition, but rather goes back to ancient times. In fact, it even occurs in the biblical text of the Book of Esther, where scripture states: “And he [Mordechai] brought up Hadassah, that is, Esther” (Esther 2:7).


Why does scripture share the fact that Esther, the title character of the Purim story, was also named Hadassah? 


Jewish tradition asserts that a person’s name is usually connected with a person’s character. The sages therefore looked to understand more about Hadassah/Esther from the meaning of her names.


Hadassah (Hebrew word for myrtle):

It has been taught: Esther was her proper name. Why then was she called Hadassah? After the designation of the righteous who are called myrtles [hadassim]...Ben ‘Azzai said: Esther was neither too tall nor too short, but of medium size, like a myrtle. Rabbi Joshua ben Korha said: Esther was sallow, but endowed with great charm” (Talmud Megillah 13a). 

Additionally, the sages note that “Just as a myrtle has a sweet smell and a bitter taste, so too Esther was good and listened (“sweet”) to the righteous Mordechai, and was adverse (“bitter”) to the wicked Haman” (Esther Rabbah 6:5).


Esther (Hebrew for hidden or concealed):

Rabbi Judah says: Hadassah was her name. Why then was she called Esther? Because she concealed the facts about herself, as it says "Esther did not make known her people or her family." Rabbi Nehemiah (offering an additional reason) says: Hadassah was her name. Why then was she called Esther? All peoples called her so after Istahar (a reference to the planet Venus, alluding to Esther’s beauty) (Talmud Megillah 13a).


This Treat is reposted in honor of Purim.


Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

The History Around Purim

The story of Purim takes place at the very end of the era known in Jewish history as the Babylonian Exile.

Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonian empire destroyed the Temple and Jerusalem and exiled the Jews from the Land of Israel. Fifty years later, however, the Babylonian Empire was itself crushed by the combined armies of King Darius of Media and King Cyrus of Persia (both part of current day Iran), and the new Persian Empire was formed under the rule of Cyrus. Unlike his Babylonian predecessors, Cyrus was not interested in destroying the individual cultures of his subjects, unless they were in direct opposition to him. Known as Cyrus the Great, he issued an edict allowing the Jews to return to the land of Israel. Shortly afterwards, the first group of Jewish exiles returned to Israel under the leadership of Nechemiah and began laying the foundations for rebuilding of the Holy Temple. The enemies of the Jews, however, convinced Cyrus to stop the Temple’s rebuilding.

And then came Achashverosh, the king of the Purim story. There is much debate as to the exact identity of Achashverosh. Some sources maintain that Achashverosh was actually Cambys, the son of Cyrus, some assert that he was the son of Darius the Mede. Still others argue that he was a mercenary of common birth who usurped the throne through cunning and by marrying Vashti, the great-granddaughter of Nebuchadnezzar, to give him legitimacy. Regardless of how Achashverosh achieved power, the empire he controlled stretched across the Far East. As king of the Persian Empire, Achashverosh continued the ban on the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem.

While the story seems to happen quickly, it actually took place over a spread of years. Following the defeat of the enemies of the Jews, Achashverosh remained in power with Mordechai as his Prime Minister. According to tradition, Achashverosh and Esther had one son, who grew up to be Darius II, the Persian Emperor who permitted the completion of the rebuilding of the Second Temple, ending the Babylonian exile.

This Treat is reposted in honor of Purim.


Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Study the History of Persian/Iranian Jews

Jews have had a long-lasting relationship with the Persian Empire, a good part of which is found in modern day Iran. Make the effort to study the history of the Jewish presence in Persia and the rich traditions of Persian Jews today (mostly in exile).

Friday, March 15, 2019

The Sabbath of Remembering

This Shabbat is Shabbat Parashat Zachor, the Sabbath of Remembering.

The Torah portion that is read as the Maftir (additional) portion, after the conclusion of the regular weekly Torah reading, commands the Jewish people to remember that the nation of Amalek attacked our weak, tired and elderly shortly after the Jews crossed the Red Sea (Deuteronomy 25:17-19). Therefore, there is a mitzvah to destroy Amalek. Parashat Zachor is always read on the Shabbat before Purim.

The Amalekites traveled many miles in order to attack the Jewish people from behind, attacking the weak and the stragglers. Miraculously, the Jewish people defeated the Amalekites in a one day war. This attack underscored the evil character of the Amalekites. God had just performed great miracles for the Israelites and no nation dared attack them, except Amalek, who hit them from the rear.

The nation of Amalek is known for its all-consuming love of self, and reliance on violence to prove its superiority. The Midrash (Sifrei 296) tells us that the wording in Deuteronomy 25:18, "Asher kar'cha ba'derech," literally means that Amalek "happened" upon the Jews. This, the rabbis explain, is a description of the personality of Amalek: Amalek represents the belief in chance, of the haphazard dictates of "fate," which opposes the Jewish belief in Divine providence. Amalek's philosophy negates the concept that there is a purpose to humanity or to creation itself--again the antithesis of Jewish philosophy.

Parashat Zachor is read on the Shabbat before Purim because Haman was a direct descendant of Amalek. Like his forefathers, Haman was the archenemy of the Jews. He wanted to wipe them out. Neither begging, bribery nor debate would have changed Haman's mind because the Jewish nation represented a spiritual force which he abhorred.
 


This Treat is reposted annually on the Friday of Parashat Zachor. 


Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Remember!

Whether the English “Remember,” the Hebrew “Zachor” or the Yiddish “G’denk,” it is a sacred obligation of all Jews to remember our past in order to move forward meaningfully into any Jewish future.

Thursday, March 14, 2019

The Birth and Death of Moses

One of the 13 principles of faith according to Maimonides is believing that Moses was the greatest of all the Jewish prophets. He was so great, that God feared he would be worshipped after his death, and consequently did not disclose the location of his burial crypt. According to tradition, the 7th of Adar represents both Moses’ date of birth and date of death. This date has had an impact on Jewish tradition in different ways.

The Talmud (Sotah 12b) teaches that Moses was both born and died on the 7th of Adar. The Torah records (Exodus 2:2) that Moses’ mother hid him for three months prior to placing him in a basket on the Nile river. The sages suggest that Moses was placed in the basket by his mother Yocheved on the 6th day of Sivan, which years later, would be the day, according to the consensus of most, of Revelation at Sinai. Therefore, the Talmud concludes (based on Tosefta Sotah 11:7) that Moses was both born and died on the seventh of Adar (another Talmudical opinion suggests Moses was placed in the basket on the 21st of Nissan, which was the day the Sea Split, and the rabbis still maintained that the 7th of Adar was 3 months prior).

The rabbis teach that the righteous die on their birthdays, as did Moses. Our sages claim that the three patriarchs and King David also passed away on their birthdays. The Talmud (Rosh Hashana 11a) claims that the reason for this is that God sits and “completes the years of the righteous from day to day and from month to month” based on a Biblical verse, “the number of your days I will fulfil” (Exodus 23:26).

There is a part of the Shabbat liturgy that is linked to the death of Moses. The prayer Tzidkatcha Tzedek, “Your righteousness is an everlasting righteousness,” is comprised of three verses in Psalms: 119:142, 71:19 and 36:7 (the Sephardic tradition reverses the order of the verses). Rabbi Jacob ben Asher (Tur Orach Chaim 292) claims that this prayer of accepting Divine justice, is timed for the Shabbat afternoon service, in order to function as a tziduk hadin (the acceptance of Divine judgment prayer said at a burial) for the death of Moses (and David and Joseph), which occurred in the afternoon of a Shabbat. Some suggest Moses died on the eve of Shabbat and God buried him on Shabbat – see R. Joel Sirkis and Mishnah Brurah 292:6.

Finally, the custom is for the local Jewish burial society, Chevra Kadisha, to schedule their annual dinners on or around the 7th of Adar. The annual dinners serve to fundraise, raise awareness of the holy work of the Chevra Kadisha and to honor those selfless men and women who volunteer. Customs differ when this dinner occurs, when there are two Adars.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Moses’ Impact on Jewish Life

Whether one observes the 7th of Adar as Moses’ yahrzeit (anniversary of his death) or not, there is no doubt that Moses was the greatest of the prophets and his impact as lawgiver, receiver of the Torah and the most humble of men makes his life worthy of emulation.

Wednesday, March 13, 2019

The Origins of Formal Jewish Education in the United States

Today, thankfully, there are hundreds of Jewish elementary schools in the United States that teach both Judaic and general studies. The paradigm for this movement was the founding of Yeshiva Etz Chaim on the Lower East Side of New York City, on March 15, 1886, corresponding to the 8th of Adar II (both of which fall this coming Friday).

Prior to the founding of Etz Chaim (Tree of Life in Hebrew), all Jewish education in the United States was supplementary, serving Jewish students after the conclusion of their public school studies in mostly synagogue-affiliated afternoon schools. As Torah-observant Jews began immigrating to the United States in greater numbers (approximately 2,000,000 Jews immigrated to the United States from 1881 to 1924, the vast majority of whom came from Eastern Europe), the need grew. Some parents wanted the supplementary Hebrew schools to teach Talmud, and their request was rejected. The founders of Etz Chaim Yeshiva identified boys with the requisite advanced background and rented a space at 47 East Broadway, one of the tenements on the Lower East Side, which was the mecca of Jewish immigrants at that time. Their budget was so tight, they bought only one volume of the Talmud for 90 cents and ripped it into three sections, so that each of the three teachers would have a text. They placed tzedakah (charity) boxes in homes and synagogues in order to generate funds for the school.

The curriculum mirrored that of the cheder (room in Yiddish), the parochial Jewish elementary schools that were found in all the shtetls (small towns) of Eastern Europe, except that Etz Chaim offered secular studies as well, including English, although limited at first. Eventually, Etz Chaim featured a dual curriculum of Judaic and general studies, partially due to New York State law. The students studied Judaic studies from 9:00 am until 4:00 pm. From 4:00 to 6:00 pm, the students learned English and from 6:00 pm to 7:00 pm, they learned to read and write Hebrew and Yiddish, their mother tongue.

In 1915, Yeshiva Etz Chaim merged with the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS), which was established in 1896 as the first high school and rabbinical seminary in the United States. The two institutions became the first institution of higher Torah learning in the United States, from pre-bar mitzvah, through rabbinic ordination. In 1916, RIETS created Talmudical Academy, the first Jewish high school in the United States, which also taught a full curriculum of secular studies in the afternoon. In 1928, the schools created Yeshiva College, the first accredited college under Jewish auspices in the United States.

Today, Yeshiva University and its affiliate, RIETS, enjoy tremendous success as one of the premier educational institutions in the United States. It continues to simultaneously ordain rabbis at RIETS and graduates thousands of students, including doctors, lawyers. social workers and Jewish scholars through its multiple graduate schools.

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Support Jewish Education

Vigorously support Jewish education, whether formal or informal, primary or secondary, for novices or advanced rabbinical students.

Tuesday, March 12, 2019

Costume Time

Those who first hear about the custom of wearing Purim costumes might assume that the tradition began as an imitation of Halloween. Research, however, places the origin of Halloween costumes in the 18th century, while Purim disguises are mentioned in rabbinic texts as far back as the 13th century.

Masks and disguises are a popular means of expressing some of the most important themes of Purim. For instance, “Ve'na'haphoch Hoo," "and it was reversed" (Esther 9:1)--on Purim we celebrate the idea that what one perceives as reality can easily be reversed. This theme is also one of the sources for the custom of drinking on Purim. The Talmud states that “One must drink [on Purim] until one does not know the difference between ‘Cursed be Haman’ and ‘Blessed be Mordechai’” (Megillah 7b); disguising oneself is another means of creating this same effect.

A second important theme of Purim related to the custom of wearing masks/costumes is hester panimHester panim refers to the idea that God conceals His involvement in human affairs. God is not mentioned even once in the Book of Esther, yet it is clearly Divine providence that determines events. This is hester panim, when God “hides” Himself from the world so that we can only see hints of His Divine plan. So too, on Purim, our true selves are hidden behind masks.


Although some people wear Halloween left-overs (Purim shopping begins November 1!), the characters of the Purim story are perennial favorites. (Of course, it doesn’t hurt that there are two queens--Esther and Vashti).


This Treat is reposted annually in honor of Purim.


Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.







Prepare Your Purim Costumes

Plan your Purim costumes in advance so they will somehow relate to the Purim themes and you will have what you need.

Monday, March 11, 2019

What’s in a (Last) Name?

When using proper names in the Jewish ritual, such as receiving an Aliyah to the Torah, marriage, divorce, on conversion documents, on tombstones or in memorial prayers, Jews are identified by their first and middle Hebrew names, and the name of their mother, or father, or sometimes, both. A convert who, according to Jewish law, is considered newly-born, assumes a Jewish name and is considered the child of the patriarch Abraham or matriarch Sarah. Jewish surnames are a much later development. On March 11, 1812, Jews in Prussia received citizenship, conditioned upon adopting last names. Jewish Treats proudly offers a glimpse into Jewish surnames.

Spanish Jews began using last names as early as the 10th or 11th century. The practice only became popular in Eastern Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, when the governments insisted on it as a condition for emancipation. The rationale for last names in Eastern Europe was for the government to be able to tax, draft and educate its citizens. It’s hard to send a tax bill to Moshe the son of Avraham. The general distrust Jews had of the authorities, compelled them to avoid taking last names as long as they could. The emancipation that spread throughout Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, which brought greater Jewish assimilation into general society, also saw Jews adopting last names so they would fit in.

Jewish last names were selected based on several criteria. Some knowledge of Yiddish is needed in order to understand many last names. Some took names referencing parents (e.g., Mendelson, Gittelson) including Jews who could trace their lineage to Aaron the first High Priest. Often their last names, such as Cohen, Kagan and Katz, were chosen to stress their special status as a “Kohen.” Others chose their surnames in order to pay homage to their cities of origin (Berliner, Frankfurter, Moscowitz) while others referenced occupations. Farber means painter, Feinstein means jeweler, Kramer means storekeeper, Bronfman means distiller, Feder means scribe, and Richter means judge.

Some only used their last names when interacting with the authorities, and did not take it very seriously. Somewhat arbitrary names were taken such as Feiffer (whistler), Fried (happy), Hoch (tall), Klein (small), Gross (big), Weiss (white) and Schwartz (black). Some took the names of animals such as Baer (bear), Adler (eagle), Falk (falcon), Fuchs (fox), Loeb (lion) and Ochs (ox). Others opted for last names that referred to the arboreal world such as Birnbaum (pear tree), Kirshenbaum (cherry tree) and Teitelbaum (palm tree).

Lineage is important to Jews. Knowing one’s Hebrew name and that of one’s parents’ is ultimately more important to Jewish continuity than knowing one’s last name.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Learn the Meaning of Your Last Name

Your last name may or may not bear significance on your lineage, but learning its meaning would be instructive.

Friday, March 8, 2019

When Adar Begins

The month of Adar begins today. About Adar, the twelfth month of the Jewish calendar year, the Talmud (Ta’anith 29a) states: “Mee'sheh'nichnas Adar, marbin b'simchah," With the beginning of Adar, rejoicing is increased.

One might think that this increase in joy is because Adar is the first month of spring. While winter is not completely gone, it is certainly on its way out. That may be enough reason for others to rejoice, but the Jews have the wonderful holiday of Purim to make our spirits joyful.

Celebrated on the 14th day of the month of Adar,* Purim is the holiday that commemorates good overcoming evil. In a nutshell, the story of Purim revolves around the plot, launched in the year 518 BCE by Haman (the wicked viceroy of the Persian-Median King Achashverosh), to kill all the Jews in Achashverosh’s kingdom. Haman’s hatred of the Jews reached a psychotic level when Mordechai, the leader of the Jewish community, refused to bow to him. Haman requested and was granted permission by Achashverosh to issue a decree calling for the death of all the Jews. Haman, however, was unaware that Achashverosh’s new queen, Esther, was actually Jewish and was Mordechai’s cousin. With significant courage (and tremendous faith in God), Esther revealed Haman’s wicked plot to the king, thus saving the Jewish people.

In celebration of their salvation, the Jews feasted, gave charity and exchanged gift baskets with each other. They celebrated being alive with tremendous joy and rejoiced at being part of a wonderful nation. It is the energy of their joy that permeates the entire month of Adar so that even now, 2,500 years later, when Adar begins, rejoicing is increased.

* Some ancient walled cities, such as Jerusalem, celebrate on the 15th of Adar.

This Treat was originally posted on Tuesday, February 24, 2012.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Heighten Your Gladness

Find ways to increase your joy during the festive month of Adar.

Thursday, March 7, 2019

The Transparency of a Conjunction

One of the hallmarks of personal integrity, is financial accountability and transparency. It behooves religious organizations, as ethical role models, to exhibit the highest level of honesty with money. The treasurers in the Temple enacted certain behaviors to assure financial transparency and scrupulousness avoiding even a smidgen of the appearance of impropriety.

Among the minute details of the construction of the Tabernacle mentioned in parashat Pikudei, we find the following: “and from the one thousand and seven hundred seventy-five [shekels of silver] he made hooks for the pillars [of the courtyard fence] and covered their tops and belted them” (Exodus 38:29). The Midrash (Yalkut Shimoni, Pikudei #415) relates an astounding “account” regarding Moses’ attempt to ensure fiduciary transparency.

“When the work of the Mishkan was completed, Moses invited others in and agreed to publicly audit the ‘books’ of the donations for the Tabernacle. All of Israel entered, and Moses concluded the calculations, but could not account for 1,775 shekels. Moses tried to remember where that missing money could have gone. He stated, ‘Now the Israelites will accuse me of taking the money.’ God enlightened Moses and he saw the hooks for the pillars, which cost 1,775 shekels.”

Are we really to believe, as the Midrash seems to suggest, that the Jews would have suspected Moses of theft, or that Moses feared that he would be suspected of pilfering?

Perhaps the focus of the Midrash is more on the hooks, not Moses’ transparency. The Hebrew word for hook (vav) is also the same word as the conjunction “and.” When Moses realized the unaccounted funds were for hooks, it helped him realize that his destiny was linked and connected to that of his flock, the Children of Israel.

The goal of the Tabernacle was to link the Children of Israel with their Father in Heaven and to help connect each Jew to every other Jew.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Treasurers Must Avoid the Appearance of Impropriety

Anyone handling money, especially representatives of Jewish organizations, must act with transparency, and the height of integrity.

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

Jewish Law and the Snooze Button

As the world celebrates “Procrastination Week” this week, Jewish Treats, of course, has been putting off writing about this topic.

While executing tasks in a timely manner and keeping to a disciplined timeline are the hallmarks of successful people, Judaism does recognize some elements of procrastination. Case in point: the opening words of Rabbi Joseph Karo’s “Shulchan Aruch,” the Code of Jewish Law.

Yitgaber ka’ari la’amod baboker la’avodat bore’oh, shey’hei hu m’orer hashachar,” [upon waking] one should strengthen oneself like a lion to rise in the morning to serve one’s Creator (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 1:1).

Why did Rabbi Joseph Karo begin his legal treatise with these words? Is this a legal point or a strategy for rising in the morning?

Rabbi Israel Meir Kagan, also known as the Chafetz Chaim, notes on these words in his Mishnah Brurah commentary to the Shulchan Aruch: “If one’s evil inclination urges one during the winter months to remain in bed due to the bitter cold; or if one’s evil inclination urges one during the summer months to want to remain in bed since the sun rises much earlier in the summer months, one needs to strengthen oneself from these seductive suggestions and wake up. One should explain to oneself that if they were needed for service of the king, they would surely awaken and arrive at work on time. This logic should work so much more so regarding the King, sovereign of all sovereigns.”

However, Rabbi Moses Isserlis, the Ashkanazic contemporary of Rabbi Karo, whose comments are contained in most versions of Shulchan Aruch, added to Rabbi Karo’s comment: “immediately upon rising in the morning, one should get up with alacrity (zerizut) to serve one’s God.” The aforementioned Rabbi Kagan comments here on the word “alacrity” in his Mishnah Brurah (subsection 8): “Not necessarily alacrity, since one should not wake up too suddenly, for this can harm the body as is stated in the Talmud Gittin 70a: “there are five actions that bring one closer to death than to life and they are… if he slept and stood up immediately…”

It sure sounds like the Mishnah Brurah would probably agree to the use of a snooze button on an alarm clock, within reason, to slowly ease one out of bed in the morning.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Create a To-Do List and Accomplish it

The best way to succeed, is to fulfill one’s tasks with alacrity and within a reasonable time-frame.

Tuesday, March 5, 2019

The Iron Curtain

On March 5, 1946, barely one year after the end of World War II, recently-defeated British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, delivered a speech entitled, “Sinews of Peace” at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, in the presence of U.S. President Harry S. Truman. The speech laid down the gauntlet in the early years of what would be called “The Cold War,” describing the need for the West to contain the Soviet spread of Communism. The Cold War would be the main feature of US and British relations with the USSR from the mid-40s through the USSR’s dissolution in 1991.

In his “Sinews of Peace” speech, Churchill declared: "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an ‘iron curtain’ has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow."

While Churchill was many things, a Talmudic scholar he was not. His world-famous phrase “Iron Curtain” became analogous with the Soviet autocracy around Eastern Europe. He had no idea that the Talmud used the term ‘chomah shel barzel,’ literally, an iron barrier or wall, in several places.

A passage in the Talmud (Brachot 32b) teaches, “Rabbi Elazar stated, from the day the Temple was destroyed, an iron wall separated the Children of Israel from their Father in heaven, as it states “And take an iron pan, and set it for a wall of iron between you and the city…” (Ezekiel 4:3).” Rabbi Elazar laments that animal sacrifice no longer provides atonement for sin, and the Children of Israel’s ability to communicate with God and repent is also challenged. He claims that although the Temple’s destruction brought with it the sealing of the gates of prayer, the gates of tears will forever be available and open to us. The “iron curtain” will forever represent the diaspora Jew, knocking on heaven’s door, but unable to enter.

Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” spoke about spheres of influence that would take direction from the autocratic regime in Moscow. The rabbis’ description of a metal barrier has far greater consequences. Although Churchill did not live to see it, the Iron Curtain fell pretty easily. The barrier between humankind and God, however, can only be penetrated by heartfelt petition and supplication.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Prayer Needs to Pierce Barriers

When we pray to God, we must envision our prayers as being potent enough to breach a wall.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Green Jews

Aside from Senator Bernie Sanders, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield – aka “Ben and Jerry’s” – people normally do not associate the Green Mountain State with Jews. Although some scholars date Jewish interest in Vermont to the 1760s, when Jewish land speculators arrived, Vermont’s first synagogue, Israelite Assembly, was not established until much later, in 1867 in Poultney (about 70 miles south of Burlington). In 1873 they consecrated a Jewish cemetery, and built a second synagogue.

Around 1840, Lithuanian peddlers settled in Burlington, between the New York-Montreal trading route, finding a fresh area to sell their wares. One can still tour the “Little Jerusalem,” neighborhood in the Old North End of Burlington, the state’s largest city, which represented the mini shtetl where the Jews lived from the 1880s through the 1940s. Three Orthodox synagogues were built--the first in 1885, in addition to a communal Hebrew Free School. The community thrived through its heyday in the 1920s and staved off the ubiquitous American “melting pot” assimilation longer than most other communities. In 2012, Vermont Public Television produced a very enlightening documentary about “Little Jerusalem.”

Burlington’s tight knit Orthodox community hired very prominent rabbis, one of whom was Rabbi Yaakov Hakohen Meskin (1884-1956), a Lithuanian-trained sage who studied in the famed Yeshivat Kneseth Israel in Slabodka and became a prime disciple of Rabbi Isaac Rabinowitz of Ponevezh. He served as rabbi at Burlington’s Chaye Adam Synagogue from 1924 to 1931, after which he moved to the much larger Jewish community in the Bronx, in New York. While still in Europe, Rabbi Meskin penned the rabbinic responsa allowing the young wife of Shimon Meisner to remarry. Mr. Meisner was a passenger on the ill-fated Titanic, whose body was never recovered. Rabbi Rabinowitz agreed with his student’s decision.

Unfortunately, signs restricting the entrance of Jews (and others) were commonly encountered around Vermont in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Nevertheless, other surges of Jewish immigration occurred in the 1950s, as an IBM facility opened in Burlington. Another surge occurred in the 1960s, bringing hippies to Vermont, including the aforementioned Jewish kings of ice cream.

Today, most Jewish Vermonters do not affiliate with synagogues or organized Jewish life (Vermont is considered the least religiously affiliated state in the United States). In a state with a total population of 623,000, demographers estimate that the Jewish population of Vermont is somewhere between 5,700 and 20,000. There are currently 14 synagogues in Vermont.

The state of Vermont was admitted as the fourteenth state of the United States on March 4, 1791.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Learn the Jewish History of Vermont

Before you travel to or through Vermont, learn its rich Jewish history.

Friday, March 1, 2019

The Most Popular non-Holiday Event on Jewish Calendars

Tonight is the 23rd annual Shabbat Across America and Canada. Jewish Treats is proud to present a history of NJOP’s SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA. Jewish Treats is one of NJOP’s popular social media platforms.

SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA originated in 1980 as a program at Lincoln Square Synagogue in Manhattan, and was then given the name Turn Friday Night Into Shabbos. For many Jews, it was their first taste of Shabbat. For others, it was the first positive, joyous experience that they had in their Jewish lives.

In the mid-1980s, “TFNIS” was taken national across the United States, and from 1987 through 1996, was coordinated nationally and internationally through NJOP. In 1997 it was renamed SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA.

According to Rabbi Ephraim Z. Buchwald, NJOP’s founder and director, SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA is “probably the greatest ‘rescue mission’ ever mounted to Jews who are being lost to assimilation… Fortunately, the antidote to this dreaded affliction is at hand. The Almighty has given his children a great gift – it is called Shabbat.”

The initial SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA campaigns featured ads appearing on buses, bus shelters, subway placards and billboards, and in publications such as Time, U.S. News and World Report, Newsweek, Sports illustrated and 20 major North American daily newspapers. Over the years, NJOP has produced several videos to promote Shabbat, including “I’ve Got a Feeling” from 2010, with over 838,000 hits on YouTube, and another video produced in 2015. In 2016, as the U.S. presidential campaign season began, NJOP announced Rabbi Buchwald’s faux “presidential campaign”, representing the Shabbat Party. Four videos were produced in addition to a Huffington Post op-Ed explaining what the Shabbat party is, and its connection to SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA. A CommUNITY SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA was later developed encouraging various institutions in the same city to run a joint program, as was SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA At Home, for those unwilling or unable to attend the program at a local Jewish synagogue or Jewish organization.

Since its inception, 1,085,380 guests have attended SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA programs in thousands of synagogues of all denominations, college campuses, outreach centers, military bases, JCCs and Jewish Federations and, in Moishe Houses. It has been offered in all 50 U.S. states, eight Canadian provinces, and in Israel, Mexico, South Africa, New Zealand and Qatar.

Rabbi Buchwald proudly notes that there is no “non-holiday” that is on more Jewish calendars than the annual observance of SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA. That makes sense, given the importance of Jewish unity, identity and Shabbat. Join us!

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Participate in Shabbat Across America and Canada

To find a location where you can join a SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA program, please click here.

Thursday, February 28, 2019

How to Unify the Nation

This Shabbat we read in the Torah both parashat Vayakhel and the special Torah portion for parashat Shekalim, that describes the half shekel donation given in Temple times to the Temple treasury to support the Temple’s budget, but also to serve as a way of conducting a census of the nation.

Parashat Vayakhel’s opening verses (Exodus 35) juxtapose two major themes: the mandate to construct a mishkan -- a portable tabernacle, with the call to observe the Sabbath. Prior to mentioning both of these lofty directives, Moses gathers all of the Children of Israel.

A famed Chassidic Rebbe, Rabbi Abraham Bornstein, the first Rebbe of Sochatchov (1838-1910, Poland) found significance in the order of the three items that are mentioned in the opening verses of Vayakhel: 1) first a call to unify and to gather the nation, 2) then an admonition to observe the Sabbath, and 3) only then are the people encouraged to erect the Tabernacle. Rabbi Bornstein points out that prior to consecrating the Tabernacle, individual Israelites would sacrifice to God on bamot, elevated stages that were found throughout the Israelite camp. With the consecration of the Tabernacle, use of the bamot became prohibited. As the sacrificial order became unified, the Jewish nation was united with the Tabernacle serving as the nation’s headquarters. For this reason, advances the Sochatchover Rebbe, the command to unify and gather came first, followed by Shabbat, the special sacred day that holds the secret of Jewish unity. Only after those first two levels of unity are established, does the third take place, centralizing Jewish worship by consecrating the Tabernacle.

This coming Friday night is the 23rd annual SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA, which has transformed the Divine mandate and the Divine gift of Shabbat into an international movement and phenomenon. SHABBAT ACROSS AMERICA AND CANADA‘s goal has always been to unify North American Jewry through the sanctity of Shabbat. NJOP has passionately endeavored to bond Jews to their Jewish birthright and heritage. When we celebrate Shabbat together, the observance is ennobled, and becomes more uplifting, uniting us all.  https://njop.org/programs/shabbat/saac/

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Ritual Unites

Jewish rituals work, and given their uniformity throughout the Jewish world, unite Jews around the globe.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Live Long And Prosper

Every "Trekkie" knows that Spock’s Vulcan salutation is accompanied by a strange hand gesture. What many don’t realize is that Leonard Nimoy borrowed this symbol from his traditional Jewish upbringing. It’s actually a one-handed version of two-handed priestly blessing gesture.

In Numbers 6:23-27, God instructs Moses that the priests shall "place My name upon the Children of Israel, and I Myself shall bless them." The blessing the priests were to recite was:
May God bless you and watch over you.


May God shine His face toward you and show you favor.May God be favorably disposed to you and grant you peace.


Birkat Kohanim, the priestly blessing, is also known as duchenen (Yiddish, referring to the duchan the special platform in the Temple from which the blessing was recited). Birkat Kohanim is also known as Nesi'aht Ka’payim (lifting of the palms/hands).


While Birkat Kohanim was bestowed daily in the Temple, current customs vary as to how often the blessing is bestowed by the kohanim(daily, every Shabbat, holidays only).


To bestow Birkat Kohanim, the kohanim (priests) stand facing the congregation, their tallitot (prayer shawls) draped over their head and arms. They stretch out their arms and, beneath the tallit, arrange their hands with the ten fingers separated to create 5 spaces (pinky-ring-space-middle-index-space-thumb-space-thumb-space-index-middle-space-ring-pinky). The position of the hands reflects the latticework mentioned in Song of Songs (2:9): "My Beloved...looks through the windows peering through the lattice."


The prayer is recited responsively, one word at a time, first by the cantor and then repeated by the kohanim. While Birkat Kohanim is being recited, congregants are not to look directly at the kohanim and many cover their faces with their prayer books or prayer shawls, following the Talmudic dictum (Chagiga 16b) "One’s eyes will grow weak if one looks at the hands of the priests [during the blessing]."

Leonard Nimoy died on February 27, 2015.

This Treat was originally posted on June 2, 2011.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Popular Culture References

Express Jewish pride when popular cultural references find their source in Jewish tradition and wisdom.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

General/Prime Minister Sharon

Ariel “Arik” Sharon served with unusual distinction and considerable controversy both in a military uniform and as a politician. Sharon’s life of accomplishment was punctuated by his ruthless grit and legendary Israeli confidence.

Ariel Scheinerman was born on February 26, 1928 to Shmuel and Vera Scheinerman in Moshav Kfar Malal, near Raanana, Palestine (now Israel). David Ben Gurion requested that Scheinerman Hebraicize his last name to Sharon.

As a teen, Ariel joined the Haganah, which eventually became the Israel Defense Force (IDF). Ariel Sharon fought for Israel’s independence (where Sharon was wounded in the groin, stomach and foot). He created Israel’s first commando unit that eventually became the IDF’s Paratroopers Brigade, and was a hero of the 1967 Six Day War, leading an armored division in the Sinai. Sharon came out of retirement when the Yom Kippur War broke out. Arriving at the front in his civilian car, Sharon’s forces crossed the Suez Canal, encircled the Egyptian Third Army, and effectively, ended the war.

Sharon helped found the right-leaning Likud (unity) political party in July, 1973. As a supporter of settlements, Sharon became the patron saint of the “Gush Emunim” movement, who strove to build Jewish settlements in the internationally-disputed areas that Israel gained during the Six Day War. Sharon emerged from the 1977 Knesset elections as Minister of Agriculture, and after the 1981 election, Minister of Defense. In this capacity, in 1982, he helped launch “Operation Peace for Galilee” to expel the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) from their base in Lebanon. While the PLO was forced to relocate, the war is remembered for a massacre of Lebanese Moslems by Lebanese Christian troops. A blue ribbon Israeli commission concluded that Sharon, who had overall responsibility as Defense Minister, didn’t stop the carnage, and found him indirectly culpable. Sharon resigned as Defense Minister but remained in Prime Minister Begin’s cabinet. Sharon eventually became the Likud’s leader and was elected Prime Minister on February 6, 2001.

Despite Sharon’s history as a hard-liner, in May, 2003, Sharon endorsed U.S. President George W. Bush’s “Roadmap for Peace.” To allow for Palestinian autonomy in Gaza, Sharon supported removing all Israeli citizens and forces from the Gaza Strip, captured in the Six Day War. In August, 2005, 9,480 Israelis were expelled from 21 settlements on the Gaza Strip. Although 80% of Israelis supported the Gaza disengagement, the move was extremely unpopular within the Likud party. On November 21, 2005 Sharon resigned as head of Likud and created the Kadima party.

On January 4, 2006 Sharon suffered a massive stroke, which left him in a coma. Ehud Olmert assumed the prime ministership upon Sharon’s debilitation and won the Knesset elections in March, 2006. Sharon succumbed on January 11, 2014.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Study About Israel’s Heroes

Learn about the lives, sacrifice and heroism of Israel’s founders and pioneers.

Monday, February 25, 2019

The Circle of Life

“The Circle of Life,” is both an apt description of the ups and downs of the life cycle, and also an award-winning song written by the legendary Sir Elton John for the 1994 movie hit “Lion King.” The “Circle of Life,” could also be the appropriate title of a much earlier fascinating event described in the Talmud.

A rabbi named Choni, who lived in the first century BCE, committed an act of great audacity toward God. The Talmud (Ta’anit 19a) states that most of the Hebrew month of Adar had passed and rain had still eluded the land of Israel. The Jewish leadership asked Choni, known for his extreme piety, to pray for rain. He did so, but to no avail. In an act of desperation, he drew a circle on the ground, and stood inside it, refusing to leave the circle until God sent rain. This act forever labeled him as Choni Hama’gel, Choni the circle drawer.

A light rain began, but those assembled complained that unless a strong rain would come, they would all starve. Choni did not leave his circle and prayed for a more robust rain. No sooner had Choni prayed, a torrential rain began, threatening to flood the world. Choni then directed his prayer to God: “It is not for this that I have prayed, but for rain of good will blessing, and bounty.” A hefty rain began. Choni then prayed that the rains cease, and they did.

Some rabbis viewed Choni’s ultimatum to God as overly impudent. Rabbi Shimon ben Shetach, president of the Sanhedrin, told Choni, that were he not someone so close to God and so beloved, he would have been forced to excommunicate Choni for his chutzpah toward God. In the end, the Sanhedrin applied a Scriptural verse (Job 22:28) to Choni, describing his ability to “demand” something of God: “You shall also decree a thing, and it shall be established to you; and the light shall shine upon your ways.”

According to Megillat Ta’anit, which features an ancient listing of important dates on the Jewish calendar, this Talmudic episode with Choni occurred on the 20th of Adar. This story teaches us about the power that God gives to the righteous, and God’s willingness to be dictated to by those whose motives are purely to protect God’s chosen people.

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Pray for Rain

Although most of us acquire our food at a grocery store or supermarket, let us not forget that the wrong amount of rain can destroy food for millions of people. When we pray for rain, we pray for food.

Friday, February 22, 2019

“Do You Believe in Miracles? Yes!”

The word “miracle” brings to mind Biblical stories, spiritual epiphanies, theological fervor, and religious symbols and icons. Hardly anyone would associate the term “miracle” with ice hockey. But on February 22, 1980, the word was used by the celebrated sportscaster Al Michaels, to describe the unlikely victory of the U.S. hockey team against the Soviet Hockey team, recognized as the best team in the world, in the 1980 Winter Olympics, held in Lake Placid, NY. The win placed the U.S. team into the finals, which they won and earned the coveted gold medal. “Do you believe in miracles? Yes!” was the spontaneous and now-iconic extemporaneous reaction by Michaels as the clock ticked down to the end of the game. The 2004 movie about the scrappy group of amateur ice hockey players who beat the Soviet behemoth was entitled, “Miracle.”

The Hebrew word for miracle is “nes.” Yet the very same word also means “pole” in Hebrew. What can we learn about the Jewish concept of miracles from a pole?

The first appearance of the word “nes” in the Torah appears not in the context of miracle, but regarding its cognate, pole. God had just said to Moses, “Make a venomous serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that everyone who is bitten, when he looks upon it, shall live.” After the Children of Israel fought a successful battle against the Canaanites, the nation became embittered, complaining that there was no bread or water, and how they were becoming tired of the manna which sustained them. God sent venomous snakes to the Israelite camp, who bit many people who died from the injuries. The nation approached Moses, admitted that they had sinned and asked Moses to pray to God to remove the snakes. It is here where God instructed Moses to make this pole.

Regarding this cryptic response of constructing a pole, the Mishnah (Rosh Hashana 3:8) asks, “Does a snake give life, or cause death? Rather, what the text means is that when the Israelites looked up, they subjugated their hearts to God in heaven and were instantly healed.”

Jewish wisdom is telling us that a miracle is like a pole, on which is flown a banner or flag. We rally around a banner, and the banner is often a means to inject pride and faith. So too with miracles. Supernatural Divine events are not themselves the source for inspired faith; they are occurrences that we can rally around, helping us grow in our trust in the Almighty.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Seek Out Faith Banners

Faith, by its very nature, cannot be proven. But events we encounter and witness can help bolster our faith. Seek out those inspired events.

Thursday, February 21, 2019

Moses' "Spartacus Moment"

The episode of the Golden Calf represents one of the most tragic episodes in the history of the Children of Israel. A mere 40-days prior, the Jews stood at the very same Mount Sinai, after the miraculous redemption from Egypt, and heard God, their Savior, declare an absolute severe prohibition against any forms of idolatry. How could the people who heard and experienced Revelation create, or minimally, rally around the creation of an alternative leader? Furthermore, how could they ever recover from such a misstep?

The text of the story in parashat Ki Tisa states, (Exodus 32:19), “And it came to pass, as soon as he [Moses] came near to the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing; and Moses’ anger burned hot, and he threw the tablets from his hands, and broke them beneath the mount.” How could Moses break the most precious physical objects ever created? After all, God personally fashioned the tablets, as the Torah describes (Exodus 32:16). The sages offer many answers. Some suggest when the Jews worshipped the golden calf, the miraculous tablets lost their power. As such, Moses discarded them as useless, or, according to another version, was unable to lift them anymore, as the supernatural component that allowed him to hold them disappeared with the sin. Still others argue that Moses cast them down due to anger and disappointment over the Jews’ errant behavior. One opinion in the Midrash proposes that Moses shattered the tablets as a betrothed man would sever the marriage contract in light of infidelity of their betrothed, as the consequences for adultery are much more severe. Moses too shattered the tablets, which symbolized the binding covenant with God.

One Midrash, however (Shmot Rabbah 46:1) uses the breaking of the tablets to highlight Moshe’s role as leader. “Upon seeing the iniquity of the golden calf, Moses realized that the Children of Israel could not withstand the sin. Wanting to include himself with them, he broke the tablets. Moses said to the Almighty, ‘They sinned and I sinned as well when I broke Your tablets. If You forgive them, you can also forgive me. If you will not forgive their sin, do not forgive mine. You can ‘erase my name from Your Book’ (Exodus 32:32).”

We can all learn an incredible lesson of leadership from Moses. He sought not glory for himself; he saw his job primarily as representing and defending his people.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Lead Your Flock

Although there are many factors leaders must consider when making decisions, never lose track that a leader first and foremost must represent and protect his or her flock.

Wednesday, February 20, 2019

Judaism at the Barber

On February 20, 1816, Rossini’s classic opera, The Barber of Seville, premiered at the Teatro Argentina in Rome. In tribute, Jewish Treats will address the Torah’s instructions for barbers.

The Torah (Leviticus 19:27) declares, “You shall not round the corners of your heads, nor shall you mar the corners of your beard.” In order to understand this Biblical verse, we must identify what are the “corners of your head,” what is considered “marring,” and upon whom is this proscription?

The rabbis (Makkot 20a), have declared that this prohibition, which only applies to men, refers to five parts of the face. There is some dispute as to where these five spots are, but many identify them as the two bones where the skull meets the cheek, the two bones on the bottom of the face near where glands would be checked, and the chin. Since there are multiple opinions, “shaving” is not recommended on any part of the face from the temples down to the cheeks on the front and sides of one’s face.

Shaving, however, is defined narrowly, as using a razor. Using scissors to cut the hairs, or depilatory creams or powder would be permitted. As such, a Jew using an electric shaver to shave his face must ascertain that the blades of the electric shaver function as scissors (i.e. two blades cutting the hair at a distance from the root) and not as a razor. There are opinions that Jewish men should refrain from shaving their face altogether, and allow side-curls to remain, as seen primarily among Chassidic men.

A male Jewish barber must not violate the Torah prohibition of shaving another Jewish man’s face. A Jew who is shaven with a straight-edge razor by a non-Jewish barber, violates the prohibition if he is an active participant. May a Jewish woman shave a Jewish man’s face with a razor? Maimonides rules that a Jewish woman who shaves a Jewish man’s face is exempt from the prohibition. However, the Code of Jewish Law, Shulchan Aruch, records that “some say” that a woman does violate the prohibition if she shaves another Jewish man’s face. Some argue that while a woman may technically be exempt from the prohibition of shaving, she may still be in violation of the dictum of “not placing a stumbling block in front of the blind” by allowing the Jewish man to have his face shaved.

NOTE: As with all Treats dealing with issues of halacha (points of Jewish law), one should consult one's local rabbi for practical application.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Instruct Your Barber

Explain to your barber prior to your haircut how you want him or her to cut your hair, both aesthetically and religiously.

Tuesday, February 19, 2019

Purim Katan

In a Jewish leap year, a second month of Adar is added to the Jewish calendar, creating Adar I and Adar II. The question that arises is, in which Adar does one celebrate the important events that occur in that month? On a communal level, this question refers to the holiday of Purim. On a personal level, this affects the observance of yahrtzeits and bar/bat mitzvahs.

The holiday of Purim marks the anniversary of God’s overturning the wicked plot of Haman (read the full story) on the 14th of Adar. According to tractate Megillah 6b, during a leap year Purim is observed in Adar II. However, during Adar I, the importance of the 14th of Adar must also be acknowledged. Purim Katan, “Little Purim,” as 14 Adar I is called, is therefore observed as a minor holiday. On Purim Katan certain aspects of the prayer service are omitted, fasting is forbidden and eulogies are generally prohibited. Additionally, it is considered praiseworthy to mark the day with a small festive meal (perhaps preparing or ordering a nicer lunch). 


Aside from Purim, individual life cycle events may also be affected by the extra month of Adar. A child born in Adar during a regular year celebrates his/her bar or bat mitzvah in Adar II, if it occurs during a leap year. During a leap year, a bar or bat mitzvah celebration is only celebrated in Adar I if the child was born in Adar I. (This leads to the possible interesting anomaly that a child born on the first day of Adar II celebrates his Bar Mitzvah one month before a child born on the 30th day of Adar I, if the Bar Mitzvah year is not a leap year.)

With respect to yahrtzeit observances, however, there is a difference of opinion. The Ashkenzi custom, which follows the Rema, is to observe the yahrtzeit during Adar I (but there are those who observe in Adar II, and even those who observe both Adars). According to Sephardi custom, which follows Rabbi Joseph Karo, the nachala is observed during Adar II. However, the yahrtzeit of one who passes away in either Adar of a leap year is observed only in the Adar in which they passed.

This Treat was originally posted on February 14, 2014.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.



30 days to Purim

Begin planning costumes, menus and plans for Purim.

Monday, February 18, 2019

POTUS’ Eruv

“Is there an eruv?” is one of the first questions on the lips of observant Jews when seeking to move to a new community. Read on to learn why, and in honor of President’s Day, discover how and why a U.S. president was involved with one community’s eruv.

One of the 39 prohibited acts of Shabbat, known as melachot, is carrying, or transferring an object from one domain to another. This melacha differs from the other 38 in a few ways, one of which is that the sages promoted a loophole to allow for carrying, pushing baby carriages and transferring domains, by transforming “public” domains, where carrying is proscribed, to a large “private” domain, where these acts are permitted. This is accomplished by encircling the public domain with what Jewish law would call a wall. Jewish law offers four types of “walls” or legal barriers: natural walls such as river banks, mountains, actual walls, and what is called tzurat hapetach, the outline of a doorway. The latter allows for a wall to be comprised of a series of “doorways,” so long as each “door” has the minimal form of a doorway and a lintel. Often telephone poles and utility wires can be used. The word eruv comes from the Hebrew root to mix, i.e. mixing the private and public sectors.

The sages mandated that all those residing in the area of an eruv must symbolically become unified. There are two ways to accomplish this. One is by collecting a food item from all Jews in the area, usually facilitated by using communal funds to purchase a box of matzah (matzah remains edible for a long time). The blessing over creating a communal eruv is typically made annually over this box of matzah. The second method of unifying all residents – Jews and non-Jews – is by renting the area from the local jurisdiction for the purpose of Shabbat carrying and transporting. Often this “rental” takes place through a mayoral proclamation for 99 years at the price of $1.

What happens if the area that you intend to surround with an eruv includes Federal land? In 1990, Kesher Israel Congregation of Washington, D.C. endeavored to build an eruv, but their plans included territory owned by the United States government. The synagogue reached out to U.S. President George H.W. Bush, who provided a letter granting them permission. President Bush wrote, “Now you have built this eruv in Washington, and the territory it covers includes the Capitol, the White House, the Supreme Court, and many other Federal buildings. By permitting Jewish families to spend more time together on the Sabbath, it will enable them to enjoy the Sabbath more and promote traditional family values, and it will lead to a fuller and better life for the entire Jewish community in Washington. I look upon this work as a favorable endeavor. God bless you.”



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Appreciate our Freedoms

On this President’s Day, appreciate the fact that Jews and Judaism are protected and promoted in our great country.

Friday, February 15, 2019

Do “Clothes Make the Man?”

The phrase “Clothes make the man” was adapted by Mark Twain from Shakespeare’s “For the apparel oft proclaims the man,” a comment made by Polonius in Hamlet. “Dress for Success” was a 1975 bestselling book by John T. Molloy, which began the discussion of “power dressing.” Does Judaism agree that the clothes indeed have such an impact?

Parashat T’tzaveh’s main theme revolves around the special clothing created for the kohanim, the priestly caste descended from Aaron. The fourth verse in the parasha serves as an introduction to the importance of proper raiment: “And you shall make vestments of sanctity for Aaron your brother, for glory and splendor” (Exodus 28:2).

The clothing one wears can impact a job interview, a date, or any forum where one wants to make an immediate positive impression. The Talmud speaks disparagingly about a scholar with a stain on his clothing (Shabbat 114a). But when serving as priests, humankind’s emissaries to God, does God really care about what is worn? Is God not able to see our souls? Is external garb relevant when communicating with God?

What we wear indeed has no bearing on God’s impression of us. But we must understand that it has an impact on us. We see ourselves differently when dressed with “glory and splendor.”

On January 20th, 2001, George W. Bush was sworn in as president of the United States. Among the presidential directives he signed on his first day in office, a new rule required formal attire when in the president’s Oval Office; jeans and casual clothes were banned. In a Washington Post article (January 26, 2001, pp. C2) the reporter concluded, “Bush suggests that by wearing proper attire he will constantly be reminded to be on his best behavior in the Oval Office.”

Rabbi Avigdor Nebenzhal, Chief Ashkenazic rabbi of the Old City of Jerusalem, asks why do we wrap a gift? We spend much time preparing the wrapping, which, in most cases, is immediately placed in the trash bin. Is this not a waste of time? Just give the gift? He answers that the wrapping paper, the bows and the time spent preparing the wrapping augment the gift’s value. The wrapping dignifies the beautiful present. The gift wrapping always adds “glory and splendor.”

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Dress for Spiritual Success

Endeavor to dress up, in order to elevate religious practices such as prayer services, Torah study and other rendezvous with God.

Thursday, February 14, 2019

The Rise of Phoenix

The settlement of the Arizona territory, followed the California Gold Rush of 1848-1850. When gold was found in Arizona, many people moved there from 1862 to 1864, including many Jewish businessmen who had originally settled in California. When many of the gold mines’ resources were exhausted or proven economically non-viable, many of the mining towns were abandoned. But the pioneer Jewish families arrived and found other opportunities. Among these early Jewish settlers was Michael Goldwater, who was born Michel Goldwasser in Poland, grandfather of U.S. Senator and 1964 Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater (whose mother was Episcopalian and raised him in that faith). Goldwater worked as a government contractor, a wholesale and retail merchant, a mine operator and a forwarding agent. His son, Morris served as Mayor of Prescott, AZ for 22 years. 

Other prominent Arizonan Jews were Charles and Harry Lesinsky who operated copper mines outside of Clifton, AZ in the mid-1870s, and to facilitate deliveries, built Arizona’s first railway. In the 1870s, people who lived in the Eastern United States moved to Arizona seeking palliation to their tuberculosis in Arizona’s desert air.

In 1881, the first organized Jewish community was founded in Tombstone, AZ, while a B’nai B’rith lodge was launched in Tucson, AZ in 1882. With official statehood in 1912, more Jewish families moved to Arizona, mostly professionals such as doctors and lawyers, and those in merchandising. The Jewish population skyrocketed after World War II in the communities with existing Jewish communities, namely Tucson, Phoenix, Mesa and Scottsdale.

In 2000, the Jewish population of Arizona was recorded as 120,000, and as of 2017, it had declined slightly to 106,725. About 2/3 of Arizona’s Jews reside in the greater Phoenix area and the other third in the Tucson area, although Jewish communities are also found in Flagstaff, Kingman, Lake Havasu, Sedona and Yuma.

On February 14, 1912, Arizona was admitted as the 48th and final contiguous U.S. state.

Copyright © 2019 NJOP. All rights reserved.

Learn the Jewish History of Arizona


Before you travel to or through Arizona, learn its rich Jewish history.